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HCI - Lesson 2 Interaction

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  1. HCI - Lesson 2 Interaction

  2. Outline What is Interaction Design A multidisciplinary field Terminology Interaction “Metaphors” and “Paradigms” Ergonomics Interface “types” Interaction Models (theoretical approaches) Users and Stakeholders The Interaction Design Cycle and its role in the conventional sw process

  3. Recap HCI has moved beyond desktop machines and designing interfaces for the See “Readings” Economist Oct 8, 2011 «Special Report: Personal Technology» About extending and supporting all manner of human activities in all manner of places Facilitating user experiences through designing interactions Make work effective, efficient and safer Improve and enhance learning and training Provide enjoyable and exciting entertainment Enhance communication and understanding Support new forms of creativity and expression

  4. What is interaction design? Designing interactive products to support the way people communicate and interact in their everyday and working lives Sharp, Rogers and Preece (2011) The design of spaces for human communication and interaction Winograd (1997) 4

  5. Goals of interaction design Develop usable products Usability means easy to learn, effective to use and provide an enjoyable experience Involve all stakeholders (end-users + ….) in the design process 5

  6. Scope of interaction design Number of other terms used emphasizing what is being designed, e.g. user interface design, software design, user-centered design, product design, web design, experience design (UX) Interaction design is the umbrella term covering all of these aspects fundamental to all disciplines, fields, and approaches concerned with researching and designing computer-based systems for people 6

  7. HCI and interaction design 7

  8. Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Academic disciplines contributing to ID: Psychology Social Sciences Computing Sciences Engineering Ergonomics Informatics 8

  9. Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Design practices contributing to ID: Graphic design Product design Artist-design Industrial design Film industry 9

  10. Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Interdisciplinary fields in interaction design: HCI Ubiquitous Computing Human Factors Cognitive Engineering Cognitive Ergonomics Computer Supported Co-operative Work Information Systems 10

  11. Working in multidisciplinary teams Many people from different backgrounds involved Different perspectives and ways of seeing and talking about things Benefits more ideas and designs generated Disadvantages difficult to communicate and progress forward the designs being create

  12. Interaction metaphors • Metaphor = a literary figure of speech that uses an image, story or tangible thing to represent a less tangible thing or some intangible quality or idea; e.g., "Her eyes were glistening jewels." • In HCI: • helpful to conceptualize what we are doing with an interactive system, e.g. “surfing the web” • A “conceptual model” instantiated at the interface, e.g. the desktop metaphor 12

  13. Interaction metaphors Interaction designed to be similar to the one with physical entity but also has own properties e.g. desktop metaphor Can be based on “activities” (what you can DO with the systems), “objects” (what you manage during an activity) or a combination of both Exploit user’s familiar knowledge, helping them to understand ‘the unfamiliar’ Conjures up the essence of the unfamiliar activity, enabling users to leverage of this to understand more aspects of the unfamiliar functionality 13

  14. Benefits of interaction metaphors Makes learning new systems easier Helps users understand the underlying conceptual model Can be very innovative and enable the realm of computers and their applications to be made more accessible to a greater diversity of users 14

  15. Problems with interaction metaphors Break conventional and cultural rules e.g. recycle bin placed on desktop Can constrain designers in the way they conceptualize a problem space Forces users to only understand the system in terms of the metaphor Designers can inadvertently use bad existing designs and transfer the bad parts over Limits designers’ imagination in coming up with new conceptual models 15

  16. Different Interaction Metaphors Instructing issuing commands and selecting options Conversing interacting with a system as if having a conversation Manipulating interacting with objects in a virtual or physical space by manipulating them Exploring moving through a virtual environment or a physical space 16

  17. 1. Instructing Where users instruct a system and tell it what to do e.g. tell the time, print a file, save a file Very common metaphor, underlying a diversity of devices and systems e.g. word processors, VCRs, vending machines Main benefit is that instructing supports quick and efficient interaction good for repetitive kinds of actions performed on multiple objects 17

  18. Example 18

  19. 2. Conversing Underlying model of having a conversation with another human Range from simple voice recognition menu-driven systems to more complex ‘natural language’ dialogs Examples include timetables, search engines, advice-giving systems, help systems Also virtual agents, toys and pet robots designed to converse with you 19

  20. Examplehttps://areaclienti187.telecomitalia.it/auth/registrautente.do?access=portalExamplehttps://areaclienti187.telecomitalia.it/auth/registrautente.do?access=portal 20

  21. Pros and cons of conversational metaphor Allows users, especially novices and technophobes, to interact with the system in a way that is familiar makes them feel comfortable, at ease and less scared Misunderstandings can arise when the system does not know how to parse what the user says 21

  22. 3. Manipulating Involves dragging, selecting, opening, closing and zooming actions on virtual objects Exploit’s users’ knowledge of how they move and manipulate in the physical world Can involve actions using physical controllers (e.g. Wii) or air gestures (e.g. Kinect) to control the movements of an on screen avatar Tagged physical objects (e.g. balls) that are manipulated in a physical world result in physical/digital events (e.g. animation) 22

  23. Direct Manipulation Shneiderman (1983) coined the term DM, came from his fascination with computer games at the time Continuous representation of objects and actions of interest Physical actions and button pressing instead of issuing commands with complex syntax Rapid reversible actions with immediate feedback on object of interest 23

  24. Why is DM metaphor enjoyable? Novices can learn the basic functionality quickly Experienced users can work extremely rapidly to carry out a wide range of tasks, even defining new functions Intermittent users can retain operational concepts over time Error messages rarely needed Users can immediately see if their actions are furthering their goals and if not do something else Users experience less anxiety Users gain confidence and mastery and feel in control 24

  25. What are the disadvantages with DM? Some people take the metaphor of direct manipulation too literally Not all tasks can be described by objects and not all actions can be done directly Some tasks are better achieved through delegating e.g. spell checking Moving a mouse around the screen can be slower than pressing function keys to do same actions 25

  26. 4. Exploring • Involves users moving through virtual or physical environments • E.g., browsing the web • Moving in a 3D virtual space • Physical environments with sensing technologies, e.g., • Context aware computing • Wearable computing 26

  27. Which metaphor is best? Direct manipulation is good for ‘doing’ types of tasks, e.g. designing, drawing, flying, driving, sizing windows Issuing instructions is good for repetitive tasks, e.g. spell-checking, file management Having a conversation is good for children, computer-phobic, disabled users and specialised applications (e.g. phone services) Hybrid conceptual models are often employed, where different ways of carrying out the same actions is supported at the interface - but can take longer to learn 27

  28. Further Terminology: “Paradigm” General approach adopted by a community for carrying out research shared assumptions, concepts, values, and practices e.g. desktop, ubiquitous computing, in the wild 28

  29. Examples of new paradigms Ubiquitous computing (mother of them all) Pervasive computing Wearable computing Tangible bits, augmented reality Attentive environments Transparent computing and many more…. 29

  30. Further terminology: Ergonomics the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its cognitive abilities.

  31. Ergonomics - examples • arrangement of controls and displays e.g. controls grouped according to function or frequency of use, or sequentially • surrounding environment e.g. seating arrangements adaptable to cope with all sizes of user • health issues e.g. physical position, environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), lighting, noise, • use of colour e.g. use of red for warning, green for okay,awareness of colour-blindness etc.

  32. Ergonomics and Interaction Design • Ergonomics: Study of the physical characteristics of interaction • Also known as human factors – but this can also be used to mean much of HCI! • Ergonomics good at defining standards and guidelines for constraining the way we design certain aspects of systems

  33. From Interaction to Interface

  34. From interaction to interface Interaction metaphor: what the user is doing when interacting with a system, e.g. instructing, talking, browsing or other Interface type: the kind of interface used to support the metaphor, e.g. speech, menu-based, gesture 34

  35. Many kinds of interface types available… Command line menus speech and natural language question/answer and query dialogue data-entry & form-fills WIMP Three–dimensional interfaces Multitouch ((see dedicated lesson) Gesture (see dedicated lesson) Tangible (see dedicated lesson) Augmented reality … 35

  36. Command line interface • Way of expressing instructions to the computer directly • function keys, single characters, short abbreviations, whole words, or a combination • suitable for repetitive tasks • better for expert users than novices • offers direct access to system functionality • command names/abbreviations should be meaningful! Typical example: the Unix system 36

  37. Menus • Set of options displayed on the screen • Options visible • less recall - easier to use • rely on recognition so names should be meaningful • Selection by: • numbers, letters, arrow keys, mouse • combination (e.g. mouse plus accelerators) • Often options hierarchically grouped • sensible grouping is needed • Restricted form of full WIMP system (see next slides) 37

  38. Speech & Natural language • Speech recognition or typed natural language • Familiar to user • Rapidly improving … … but still inaccurate • Problems (see phone services!) • vague • ambiguous • hard to do well! • Solutions • try to understand only a subset • pick on key words • Provide feedbacks • e.g. airline reservation: reliable “yes” and “no” + system reflects back its understanding“you want a ticket from New York to Boston?” 38

  39. can’t always avoid errors … … but we can put them right make it easy to detect errors … then the user can repair them hello, this is the Go Faster booking system what would you like? (user) I want to fly from New York to London you want a ticket from New York to Boston (user) no sorry, please confirm one at a time do you want to fly from New York (user) yes … … … Error and repair (in speech interaction, and in general) 39

  40. Q&A and Query interfaces • Question/answer interfaces • user led through interaction via series of questions • suitable for novice users but restricted functionality • often used in information systems • Query languages (e.g. SQL) • used to retrieve information from database • requires understanding of database structure and language syntax, hence requires some expertise 40

  41. Form-fills • Primarily for data entry or data retrieval • Screen like paper form. • Data put in relevant place • Requires • good design • obvious correctionfacilities 41

  42. Spreadsheets • first spreadsheet VISICALC, followed by Lotus 1-2-3MS Excel most common today • sophisticated variation of form-filling. • grid of cells contain a value or a formula • formula can involve values of other cells e.g. sum of all cells in this column • user can enter and alter data spreadsheet maintains consistency 42

  43. WIMP Interface • Windows • Icons • Menus • Pointers • … or windows, icons, mice, and pull-down menus! • default style for majority of interactive computer systems, especially PCs and desktop machines • Point&Click mechanism • just click something! • icons, text links or location on map • minimal typing 43

  44. elements of the WIMP interface windows, icons, menus, pointers +++ buttons, toolbars, palettes, dialog boxes also see supplementary materialon choosing wimp elements 44

  45. WIMP: Windows • Areas of the screen that behave as if they were independent • can contain text or graphics • can be moved or resized • can overlap and obscure each other, or can be laid out next to one another (tiled) • scrollbars • allow the user to move the contents of the window up and down or from side to side • title bars • describe the interaction context (e.g., the name of the window) 45

  46. WIMP: Icons • small picture or image • represents some object in the interface • often a window or action • windows can be closed down (iconised) • small representation fi many accessible windows • icons can be many and various • highly stylized • realistic representations. 46

  47. WIMP: Pointers • important component • WIMP style relies on pointing and selecting things • uses mouse, trackpad, joystick, trackball, cursor keys or keyboard shortcuts • wide variety of graphical images 47

  48. WIMP: Menus • Choice of operations or services offered on the screen • Required option selected with pointer problem – take a lot of screen space solution – pop-up: menu appears when needed 48

  49. WIMP: Kinds of Menus • Menu Bar at top of screen (normally), menu drags down • pull-down menu - mouse hold and drag down menu • drop-down menu - mouse click reveals menu • fall-down menus - mouse just moves over bar! • Contextual menu appears where you are • pop-up menus - actions for selected object • pie menus - arranged in a circle • easier to select item (larger target area) • quicker (same distance to any option)… but not widely used! 49

  50. WIMP: Menus extras • Cascading menus • hierarchical menu structure • menu selection opens new menu • and so in ad infinitum • Keyboard accelerators • key combinations - same effect as menu item • two kinds • active when menu open – usually first letter • active when menu closed – usually Ctrl + letter • usually different !!! 50