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  1. Update on the use of Liquid Equivalent for determination of snowfall and drizzle rates of light, moderate, and heavyOct. 13, 2003 Presentation at Friends and Partners in Aviation Weather meeting Roy Rasmussen, NCAR

  2. Background • Current definition of light, moderate and heavy snowfall intensity based on visibility: • Greater than or equal to 1 km: Light • Between 0.4 and 1.0 km: Moderate • Less than or equal to 0.4 km: Heavy • The current operational reports of snow intensity through METARs is based on the above definitions. • There is currently no WMO or National Weather Service agreed upon snow intensity based on liquid equivalent rate. • The Ground Deicing community, however, has agreed upon the following definitions: 0 – 10 g/d2/hr: Light 10 – 25 g/d2/hr: Moderate > 25 g/d2/hr: Heavy

  3. Issue: • The definition of light, moderate and heavy snow and light, moderate, and heavy drizzle based on visibility is inadequate for aircraft deicing as it doesn’t give a reliable indication of the liquid equivalent rate. • The liquid equivalent rate is the primary factor causing deicing fluids to fail. • This is critical in determining the correct holdover time for the conditions.

  4. History • Prompted by concerns from the aircraft deicing community, Rick Heuwinkel of the FAA started a process with the National Weather Service to review the use of liquid equivalent to determine light, moderate and heavy snowfall and drizzle intensity. • On Nov. 13 2003, a meeting was held with all the U.S. Federal Agencies that coordinate meteorological definitions in Washington, D.C.. This meeting was coordinated by the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology. • I gave a talk giving the scientific and operational reasons needed for this change at this meeting. • All the attending agencies agreed, and agreed to the rate definitions given in the previous slide. • The NWS thought this was a good time to make the change in that the new All Weather Precipitation gauge is being installed at 333 ASOS sites across the country. To date nearly 124 have been installed, with the rest likely by December 2004.

  5. FAA TYPE I HOLDOVER TIME GUIDELINE Table 1. FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAEType I Fluid Mixture as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT. CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFFCHECK PROCEDURES. Effective: October 1, 2003 TABLE 1B. SNOWFALL INTENSITIES AS A FUNCTION OF PREVAILING VISIBILITY. FOR TYPE I HOLDOVER TIME GUIDELINES • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAE TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2A - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for KILFROST ABC-II PLUS Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 3,600cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle LV2, 250ml beaker, 150ml fluid, 10 min. grd. leg. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • KILFROST ABC-II PLUSTYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2B - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for KILFROST ABC-2000 Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 2,350 cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle LV2, 250ml beaker, 150ml fluid, 10 min. grd. leg. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • KILFROST ABC-2000TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2C - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for Octagon E-MAX II Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and • OAT –Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 13,520 cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle LV1, 600 ml beaker, 500 ml fluid, 33 min 20 sec, grd. leg • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • OCTAGON E-MAX II TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2D – FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SPCA ECOWING 26 Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% fluid Tested 4,900cp, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 30 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SPCA ECOWING 26TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2E – FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAFEWING MP II 2025 Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% fluid Tested 5,500mPa.s, 20 oC, 0.3 rpm, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SPCA ECOWING 26TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • FAA TYPE IV HOLDOVER TIME GUIDELINE • TABLE 4 - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAE Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees CelsiusOAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAE TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDEPROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4A - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for UCAR ULTRA+ Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 36,000cP, 0 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-31/13R, 10ml fluid, 10 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. Modified Visibility Criteria for Snow Intensity Based on Temperature and Day or Night • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • KILFROST ABC-STYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4D - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAFEWING MP IV 1957 Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 16,200cP, 20o , 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAFEWING MP IV 1957TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4E – FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAFEWING MP IV 2001 Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT –Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 18,000cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAFEWING MP IV 2001TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4F – FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for CLARIANT SAFEWING MPIV 2012 PROTECT Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% fluid Tested 7,800cp, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • CLARIANT SAFEWING MP IV 2012 PROTECT TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4G - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for CLARIANT SAFEWING FOUR Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT –Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 6,400cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAFEWING FOURTYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4H - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for CLARIANT SAFEWING MPIV 2030 ECO Type IV as a function of Weather Conditions • and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 10,500 mPa.s, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SPCA AD-480TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4I - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SPCA AD-480 Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 15,200cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 30 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SPCA AD-480TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 5 - FAA Guidelines for the Application of SAE Type II and Type IV Fluid Mixtures. • Minimum Concentrations as a Function of Outside Air Temperature (OAT). • Concentrations in % V/V Effective: October 1, 2003 Table 6. List of Qualified (1) Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids – Winter 2003-2004 Qualified Type I Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids Table 6. List of Qualified (1) Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids – Winter 2003-2004(Continued) Qualified Type II Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids Qualified Type IV Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids (1) NOTE: Qualified implies that the fluid has met the requirements of the applicable SAE AMS performance specifications, as conducted by the Anti-Icing Materials International Laboratory at the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Canada, in effect at the time of certification. Web site: http://www.uqac.uquebec.ca/amil/ It also implies that the fluid has completed HOT testing. Fluids that successfully qualify after the issuance of this list will appear in a later update.

  6. The U.S. NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PROPOSED CHANGE TO THE INTENSITY OF SNOW AND DRIZZLE IS AS FOLLOWS:(b) Intensity of Snow and Drizzle. The manually-derived intensity of snow and drizzle shall be based on the reported surface visibility in accordance with Table 8-6, when occurring alone. Where possible, the intensity of snow or drizzle may be automatically determined by sensors operating in accordance with the Federal Standard Algorithms for Automated Observing Systems Used for Aviation Purposes using a liquid water equivalent rate.

  7. Table 8-4. Intensity of Snow Based on Liquid Water Equivalent Rate Intensity Criteria Light Less than 1 mm*/hrModerate 1 – 2.5 mm*/hrHeavy Greater than 2.5 mm*/hr Table 8-5. Intensity of Freezing Drizzle Based on Liquid Water Equivalent Rate Intensity Criteria Light Less than 0.254 mm*/hr Moderate 0.254 – 0.508 mm*/hrHeavy Greater than 0.508 mm*/hr *or English equivalent.

  8. Table 8-6. Estimating Intensity of Snow or Drizzle Based on Visibility Intensity Criteria Light Visibility > 1/2 mile. Moderate Visibility > 1/4 mile but < 1/2 mile. Heavy Visibility < 1/4 mile.

  9. History (cont.) • The latest meeting occurred on April 24, 2004 with the FAA and National Weather Service. A potential issue has developed that may slow down the process, which is that the FAA is suggesting that the National Weather Service adopt the new snowfall intensity definitions that we have developed for aircraft deicing use based on the visibility, temperature, and day/night table. This could delay the process. The FAA feels that this would help those airports that won’t have automatic liquid equivalent sensors. • At the May 2004 Frankfurt SAE Ground Deicing meeting I polled the participants on the above issue, and they unanimously agreed that they do not want to slow down the process for this reason. • I am currently dealing with Steve Albersheim at the FAA on this issue, and have been providing him information. • The drizzle accretion algorithm for light, moderate, and heavy has not been implemented yet either. Will likely be implemented in conjunction with the new precipitation type instrument (which is currently being evaluated this winter).

  10. Freezing Drizzle as a Ground Deicing HazardRoy Rasmussen and Chuck Wade National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)David Fleming, R.K. Moore, Amor Davis, and Tom Lisi United AirlinesMorris KjollebergBraathensAl RamsayScience Applications CorporationWork funded by the FAA Aviation Weather Research Program

  11. Freezing Drizzle as a Ground Deicing Hazard • On Oct. 31, 2002, twelve United Airlines 737-300 aircraft departing Denver International Airport between 1700 and 2100 Mountain Standard Time (MST) (0000 to 0400 UTC Nov. 1) had engine fan blade damage due to ice being ingested into the engine on takeoff or taxi. The damage was to the right engines only. Cost to United: $2 million. • On Feb. 7, 2003, six Brathens Airlines 737-300 aircraft departing Gardemoen Airport in Oslo Norway had engine fan blade damage due to freezing drizzle ingestion during taxi from the gate to the takeoff runway. • On Oct. 30-31, 2003, United Airlines had an additional six aircraft damaged due to freezing drizzle ingestion during taxi from the gate to the takeoff runway. Cost to United: $850K.

  12. Freezing Drizzle as a Ground Deicing Hazard

  13. Freezing Drizzle as a Ground Deicing Hazard United taxi tests with a 737 in freezing fog on Nov. 6, 2003 showed ¼” ice build up on the fan blades in 15 minutes and ½” ice build up in 30 minutes.

  14. Engine Damage due to Freezing Drizzle

  15. Freezing Drizzle as a Ground Deicing Hazard Issue: Either light snow or light freezing drizzle reported in all these cases. The actual condition was moderate to heavy freezing drizzle based on the Ramsay algorithm and other observations.

  16. Criteria for Determining Freezing Drizzle Intensity 1 Federal Meteorological Handbook 2 Glossary of the American Meteorological Society

  17. Remarks on Current Methods to Estimate Freezing Drizzle Intensity • A recent report by Alan Ramsay prepared for the U.S. National Weather Service ASOS program (Sept. 21, 1999) has shown that the use of visibility to estimate drizzle intensity is highly inaccurate in terms of the actual ice accretion rate on an exposed surface. • Partially in response to this, Al Ramsay developed a new drizzle intensity algorithm based on ice accretion on the freezing rain sensor that will be adopted by the U.S. National Weather Service in a few years (ASOS algorithm).

  18. One minute freezing drizzle observations from ASOS sites with freezing rain sensors at various locations in the U.S. from 1998-99 (Analysis by Al Ramsey, formerly of Raytheon). Percent of time Freezing Drizzle Intensity

  19. ASOS Present Weather Sensor LEDWI Optical Scientific Inc. Rosemount Icing Sensor Model 872C3

  20. Remarks on Current Methods to Estimate Freezing Drizzle Intensity • Currently used method to estimate drizzle intensity (light, moderate, or heavy) reported on METAR’s is based on visibility. This is true both with the U.S. National Weather Service, and also internationally.

  21. Remarks on Current Methods to Estimate Freezing Drizzle Intensity • A recent report by Dr. Alan Ramsey prepared for the U.S. National Weather Service ASOS program (Sept. 21, 1999) has shown that the use of visibility to estimate drizzle intensity is highly inaccurate in terms of the actual ice accretion rate on an exposed surface.

  22. Ramsay Algorithm for FZRA/FZDZ

  23. Icing Rates

  24. FAA TYPE I HOLDOVER TIME GUIDELINE Table 1. FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAEType I Fluid Mixture as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT. CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFFCHECK PROCEDURES. Effective: October 1, 2003 TABLE 1B. SNOWFALL INTENSITIES AS A FUNCTION OF PREVAILING VISIBILITY. FOR TYPE I HOLDOVER TIME GUIDELINES • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAE TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2A - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for KILFROST ABC-II PLUS Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 3,600cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle LV2, 250ml beaker, 150ml fluid, 10 min. grd. leg. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • KILFROST ABC-II PLUSTYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2B - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for KILFROST ABC-2000 Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 2,350 cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle LV2, 250ml beaker, 150ml fluid, 10 min. grd. leg. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • KILFROST ABC-2000TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2C - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for Octagon E-MAX II Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and • OAT –Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 13,520 cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle LV1, 600 ml beaker, 500 ml fluid, 33 min 20 sec, grd. leg • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • OCTAGON E-MAX II TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2D – FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SPCA ECOWING 26 Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% fluid Tested 4,900cp, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 30 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SPCA ECOWING 26TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 2E – FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAFEWING MP II 2025 Type II Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% fluid Tested 5,500mPa.s, 20 oC, 0.3 rpm, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SPCA ECOWING 26TYPE II FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • FAA TYPE IV HOLDOVER TIME GUIDELINE • TABLE 4 - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAE Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees CelsiusOAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAE TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDEPROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4A - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for UCAR ULTRA+ Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 36,000cP, 0 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-31/13R, 10ml fluid, 10 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. FAA TYPE I HOLDOVER TIME GUIDELINE Table 1. FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAE Type I Fluid Mixture as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT.CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFFCHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • KILFROST ABC-STYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4D - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAFEWING MP IV 1957 Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 16,200cP, 20o , 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAFEWING MP IV 1957TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4E – FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SAFEWING MP IV 2001 Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT –Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 18,000cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAFEWING MP IV 2001TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4F – FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for CLARIANT SAFEWING MPIV 2012 PROTECT Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% fluid Tested 7,800cp, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • CLARIANT SAFEWING MP IV 2012 PROTECT TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4G - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for CLARIANT SAFEWING FOUR Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT –Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 6,400cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SAFEWING FOURTYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4H - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for CLARIANT SAFEWING MPIV 2030 ECO Type IV as a function of Weather Conditions • and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 10,500 mPa.s, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 15 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SPCA AD-480TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 4I - FAA Guideline for Holdover Times Anticipated for SPCA AD-480 Type IV Fluid Mixtures as a Function of Weather Conditions and OAT–Viscosity of Neat 100% Fluid Tested 15,200cP, 20 oC, 0.3 RPM, Spindle SC4-34/13R, 10ml fluid, 30 min. • CAUTION: THIS TABLE IS FOR DEPARTURE PLANNING ONLY AND SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK PROCEDURES. • °C = Degrees Celsius OAT = Outside Air Temperature • °F = Degrees Fahrenheit VOL = Volume • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE APPLICATION OF THESE DATA REMAINS WITH THE USER. • * During conditions that apply to aircraft protection for ACTIVE FROST • ** No holdover time guidelines exist for this condition below -10 C (14 F) • *** Use light freezing rain holdover times if positive identification of freezing drizzle is not possible • ‡ Snow pellets, ice pellets, heavy snow, moderate and heavy freezing rain, and hail • Snow includes snow grains • CAUTIONS: • THE TIME OF PROTECTION WILL BE SHORTENED IN HEAVY WEATHER CONDITIONS. HEAVY PRECIPITATION RATES OR HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT, HIGH WIND VELOCITY, OR JET BLAST MAY REDUCE HOLDOVER TIME BELOW THE LOWEST TIME STATED IN THE RANGE. HOLDOVER TIME MAY BE REDUCED WHEN AIRCRAFT SKIN TEMPERATURE IS LOWER THAN OAT. • SPCA AD-480TYPE IV FLUID USED DURING GROUND DEICING/ANTI-ICING IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND DOES NOT PROVIDE PROTECTION DURING FLIGHT. • Effective: October 1, 2003 • TABLE 5 - FAA Guidelines for the Application of SAE Type II and Type IV Fluid Mixtures. • Minimum Concentrations as a Function of Outside Air Temperature (OAT). • Concentrations in % V/V Effective: October 1, 2003 Table 6. List of Qualified (1) Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids – Winter 2003-2004 Qualified Type I Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids Table 6. List of Qualified (1) Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids – Winter 2003-2004(Continued) Qualified Type II Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids Qualified Type IV Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids (1) NOTE: Qualified implies that the fluid has met the requirements of the applicable SAE AMS performance specifications, as conducted by the Anti-Icing Materials International Laboratory at the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Canada, in effect at the time of certification. Web site: http://www.uqac.uquebec.ca/amil/ It also implies that the fluid has completed HOT testing. Fluids that successfully qualify after the issuance of this list will appear in a later update.