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Chapter 17. The Urinary system. k idneys. Location The right kidney touches the liver and is lower than the left kidney. Protected partially by the lower ribs and by the muscles of the lower back. About 20% of the blood pumped by the heart each minute enters the kidneys. kidneys.

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k idneys
  • Location
    • The right kidney touches the liver and is lower than the left kidney.
    • Protected partially by the lower ribs and by the muscles of the lower back.
    • About 20% of the blood pumped by the heart each minute enters the kidneys.
  • Internal Structure
    • Renal cortex
    • Renal medulla
    • Renal pyramids
    • Renal papilla
    • Renal pelvis
    • Calyx
  • Microscopic Structure
    • More than a million microscopic units called nephrons make up each kidney’s interior.
    • Nephronsare composed of two principle components: the renal corpsule and the renal tubule
kidney function
Kidney function

1. Filters blood and produces urine.

- excretes toxins and waste products

kidney function1
Kidney function

2. Regulates levels of many chemical substances in the blood such as chloride, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate.

kidney function2
Kidney function

3. Regulate proper balance between water and salt in the blood.

kidney function3
Kidney function

4. Help with blood pressure regulation

5. Help maintain adequate RBC numbers

formation of urine
  • Filtration – goes on continually in the renal corpuscles.
    • Glomerularblood pressure causes water and dissolved substances to filter out of glomeruli into Bowman’s capsule.
    • Normal glomerular filtration rate is 125 mL per minute.
formation of urine1
  • Reabsorption – the movement of substances out of the renal tubules into the blood capillaries located around the tubules (peritubular capillaries).
    • Water, nutrients, and ions are reabsorbed.
    • Water is reabsorbed by osmosis from proximal tubules
formation of urine2
  • Secretion – the process by which substances move into urine in the distal and collecting tubules from blood in peritubular capillaries.
    • Hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and certain drugs are secreted by active transport, ammonia is secreted by diffusion.
formation of urine3
  • Control of Urine Volume – mainly by the posterior pituitary hormone’s ADH, which decreases it
  • Narrow, long tubes with an expanded upper end located inside the kidney
  • Function is to drain urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
  • Structure
    • elastic muscular organ, capable of great expansion
    • is lined with a mucus membrane.
  • Functions
    • storage of urine and voiding
  • Structure
    • narrow tube from urinary bladder to exterior
    • lined with mucus membrane opening of urethra to the exterior is called the urinary meatus
  • Functions
    • passage of urine out of the body
    • male repro fluid
  • passage of urine from the body
  • Regulatory sphincters
    • Internal urethral sphincter – bladder exit - involuntary
    • External urethral sphincter – circles the urethra just below the neck of the bladder- voluntary
bladder wall
Bladder Wall
  • permits storage of urine with little increase in pressure until a volume of 300mL to 400mL is reached
emptying reflex
Emptying reflex
  • It is initiated by stretch reflex in the bladder
  • Bladder wall contracts
  • Internal sphincter relaxes
  • External sphincter relaxes, and urination occurs
retention vs suppression
Retention vs Suppression
  • urine is produced but not voided
  • no urine produced but bladder is normal

Urinary Retention

Urinary Suppression

  • Urine is voided involuntarily
  • May be caused by spinal injury or stroke
  • Retention of urine may cause cystitis – bladder infection
overactive bladder
Overactive bladder
  • Need for frequent urination
  • Called interstitial cystitis
  • The amounts voided are small
  • Extreme urgency and pain are common