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Module I: About Chili Pepper. At the end of this lesson, you have learned to answer: How chili pepper is a better crop than other vegetable crops like tomato, watermelon, etc.? What chili pepper types are cultivated? How many days chili pepper seed takes to germinate?

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module i about chili pepper

Module I: About Chili Pepper

  • At the end of this lesson, you have learned to answer:
    • How chili pepper is a better crop than other vegetable crops like tomato, watermelon, etc.?
    • What chili pepper types are cultivated?
    • How many days chili pepper seed takes to germinate?
    • Describe the root system in chili pepper?
    • Which type of roots provide anchorage to the chili pepper plant?
    • Describe the shoot system in chili pepper?
    • What is boot stage and how can you identify this stage in chili pepper?

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

  • At the end of this lesson, you have learned to answer
    • In how many days after germination the flowering initiation starts?
    • How can you identify flowering in chili pepper?
    • What is physiological maturity in chili pepper?
    • How can you identify physiological maturity in chili pepper?
    • In how many days chili pepper plant matures?
    • What is the optimum stage to harvest chili pepper?

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

Chili pepper is a member of the nightshade family and originally a wild plant in southwestern Ecuador.

The evolution of chili pepper under the pressures of cold and low temperatures imparted the ability to tolerate cold, soil toxicities, and freezing temperature more effectively to cultivated chili pepper plants than other vegetables.

Wild Chili pepper

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

  • Varieties of chili pepper are classified into 5 groups:
          • Ethnic Hot peppers
          • Chili pepper
          • Ethnic Sweet peppers
          • Ornamental and Bedding peppers
          • Sweet Bell peppers.
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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

Spice chili peppers are grown for the vegetable - long, fleshy skin used as human food or spices and condiment.

Spice chili pepper

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

Sweet peppers have sweet juicy flesh and are grown for making pepper sauces. Sweet peppers can also be used for salads or for making pickles.

Sweet Pepper

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Germination

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

At optimum temperature77 t0 86oF (25 to 300 C) and moisture, the chili pepper seed germinates in 4 to 6 days.

When chili pepper seed is sown in moist soil, the seed swells due to moisture absorption.

The seed coat breaks a small shoot (coleoptile) and a primary root (radicle) emerge.

Initially the young seedlings take nutrients from the endosperm of the seed.

Stage 1 of

Chili pepper Germination

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Seedling Development

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

The shoot (coleoptile) emerge from the ground and first leaf breaks through the tip.

The mesocotyle grows during this period and a node is formed at the base of the coleoptile just below ground level.

Secondary roots begin to grow from this node, 3 to 7 days after the plant emerges from the soil. Seedlings get the nutrients through these roots.

First Leaf

Coleoptile

Mesocotyle

Seed

Primary

Root

Stage 2 of

Chili pepper Germination

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Root system

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

  • The chili pepper root system consists of 3 types of roots:
      • Primary roots
      • Secondary or Adventitious roots
      • Tap roots
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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

  • Primary roots
  • These roots develop from the radicle and die subsequently.
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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Root system

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

Secondary or Adventitious roots

These roots develop from the first node from the mesocotyle.

These rots occupy 5 to 15 cm area in the soil around the base of the stem.

Adventitious roots are small, uniform, and form a small portion of the root system.

Secondary roots of

Chili pepper

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Shoot system

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

Leaves

Chili pepper shoot system consists of stem, leaves, nodes, and internodes during the vegetative stage.

Leaves\nodes develop @ of one in 3 to 6 days.

The plant remains in vegetative stage for 30 to 40 days during which all leaves (12 to 18) are formed.

Node

}Inter Node

Stem

Chili pepper shoot

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Shoot system

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

About at 6 to 10 days of flowering, the Plants become very green and healthy and initiate flowers.

Chili pepper usually flowers 35 to 45 days.

Flowering stage

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Shoot system

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

Two days after the emergence of the flowers from the shoots, the flowers begin to open.

The flowering can be observed from the white pollen from the anthers on the berry.

The maximum flowering takes place on 3rd or 4th day. It takes 6 days for the whole inflorescence to complete flowering.

Flowering in chili

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Seed Development

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

The chili pepper seed is called pepper seed. The seed matures in 30 to 35 days after fertilization.

Chili pepper seeds are round in shape but

flat on both sides.

The seeds vary in color - red, brown, white, yellow, or cream and are with a dull or pearly luster.

Pepper seeds

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Seed Development

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

Physiological maturity:

Maximum total dry weight of the plant reaches at the physiological maturity.

Uptake of nutrients also mostly cease at this stage.

So, if there are problems like bird damage etc. it is advantageous to harvest the crop at this stage.

As the seed moisture at this stage will be around 25 to 35%, proper drying of the seeds is important.

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Seed Development

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

Physiological maturity can be determined by the dark spot on the seed.

The seed on the left is physiologically mature; the one on the right is not.

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant

The cultivated pepper mature and get ready for dry in 100 to 140 days depending on the variety.

The right time to harvest chili pepper is at the physiological stage of the plants or when the berry moisture content is below 45%.

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Module I: About Chili Pepper

With this, the Lesson on Growth of Chili pepper Plant, and also the Module 1 - About Chili pepper concludes.

If you want to check your understanding on about chili pepper, please click on “Exercise” button given above.

The subsequent Modules in this course deal with the important insect pests that attack chili pepper crop.

Click “Modules” button and select Module 2

Lesson 2: Growth of Chili Pepper plant