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England and Constitutionalism

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  1. England and Constitutionalism

  2. James VI (King of Scotland) becomes James I of England in 1603 (upon Elizabeth I death) • Believed in absolute monarchy • “a deo rex, a rege lex:

  3. King’s power restricted due to Magna Carta & Parliament • Restriction important for 3 reasons: • the people once rose up in arms to defend their rights • king could not levy taxes w/out consent of people • restriction of royal power in administering justice

  4. Tudor monarchs had reigned for 100 yrs. Independent of Parliament • good economy • careful collection of taxes • irregular expenditures • confiscation of religious property • tampering w/currency • Parliament held irregular meetings (3-4 weeks a year)

  5. Conflict arises: James I extravagant: needs $ but does not empower parliament • Parliament refuses $ King requests • To raise needed $, James I imposed • customs duties • grants of monopolies • forced loans

  6. Parliament protests: James I imprisons leaders of Parliament • 1621—Commoners entered Protestation against the King; James dissolves Parliament

  7. James I religious tendencies also anger the English • By 1625, majority of Parliament was Puritain

  8. Charles I (1625-1649) • He was to marry Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France • 1623: Charles jilted by his Spanish fiancé • Returns to England; wants war w/Spain • Charles I spent all $ and demands more

  9. Charles I dissolved Parliament • Experiences: • difficulties in administration • fleet destroyed at Cadiz • Defeated by Huguenots in France

  10. 1628, Charles I calls 3rd Parliament: In return for funds, must sign Petition of Right: • No taxes w/out Parliament’s consent • No quartering of soldiers in private homes • No martial law in time of peace • No arbitrary imprisonment

  11. Charles agrees: Parliament also demands Buckingham’s removal—he was later assassinated

  12. Parliament dissolved again!! • For 11 years: Charles I ruled w/out Parliament • revived old feudal dues • courts levied huge fines • monopolies of wine, salt, soap sold • ship money

  13. Under William Laud: Catholic restrictions relaxed; Puritan restrictions increased • Catholic practices, vestments & dogmas were re-introduced to Anglican Church • In Scotland, tried to make Presbyterian church Episcopal • 1638: Scottish signed Great Covenant defend their religion; deposed bishops and revolted against Charles I • Charles I defeated and forced to call Parliament for funds for an army

  14. Short Parliament: only 3 weeks • Nothing resolved • Charles dissolved it, but desperate for $ to put down rebellion, he calls another Parliament

  15. Long Parliament: 1640-1660 John Pym • Archbishop Laud and Thomas Wentworth to Tower of London • Court of High Commission and Court of Star Chamber abolished • No more irregular expenditures • King could no longer dissolve Parliament • Law required Parliament to meet at least one time every 3 yrs. • Granted $ to fight Scots

  16. English Civil War (1642-1649) • Charles and nobles, landed gentry, Roman Catholics, most Anglicans: Cavaliers • Parliamentarians: business classes, farmers, Puritan religious sects: Roundheads, led by Oliver Cromwell

  17. Battle of Marston Moor (1644) • gave Roundheads control of northern England • After victory, Parliament abolished office of Bishop; removed altars; communion rails; allowed smashing of crucifixes, images, stained glass windows

  18. New Model Army--Cromwell • 1645—Battle of Naseby—New Model army destroyed Cavalier forces • 1646—Charles surrendered to Scots • Scottish Army invaded England to restore Charles I as king • Puritan forces split—smaller group supported by Cromwell’s army • Cromwell’s army intimidated Presbyterian Parliament • 1648—Battle of Preston • Cromwell says Charles must die; executed military coup on Parliament—

  19. 143 Presbyterian members purged—known as Pride’s Purge • 60 men—all independents, (Rump Parliament) determined fate of England • Rump Parliament: sentenced Charles to death as traitor, murderer, public enemy of the people • Charles beheaded January 30, 1649

  20. Commonwealth 1649-1660 • Officially England becomes republic—no monarchy or House of Lords • Cromwell—commander in chief of army, ruled as dictator • Rump Parliament did not call for new election

  21. 1653, Cromwell dissolved Rump Parliament • He becomes military and religious dictator of England, Scotland, Ireland • Appoints new members of ‘Legislative Body’ • Wrote Instrument of Government—1st modern constitution

  22. Cromwell becomes ‘Lord Protector’ for life • 1655: Cromwell became military dictator; office becomes hereditary. • Successful war against Spain (1656-59) gained Jamaica in West Indies & Port of Dunkirk on the Continent for England

  23. Stuart Restoration (1660-1680) • Charles II swore to uphold Magna Carta and Petition of Right • Nobles paid Charles 100,000 Pounds annually • Charles wanted more • 1670: Secret Treaty of Dover

  24. Charles’ religious policies • acts passed against Puritans • English saw his favoritism of Catholics • 1672, Prince James (Charles II brother) converted to Catholicism • Charles issued ‘Declaration of Indulgence’ Rumors spread about Dover • 1673: Test Act • Tales of ‘Popish’ plot • 1679 Exclusion Bill

  25. The Exclusion Bill caused much dissent in Parliament, and the two factions split into Whigs—supporters of Parliament, Protestantism and merchant class—motto: life, liberty, property • Tories—court faction motto: the king, the church, and the land

  26. 1685-1688 James II • James II openly Catholic, wants to make England Catholic • Tries to create standing army w/Catholic officers • King’s right to suspend laws and statutes enacted by Parliament • 1687 ‘Declaration of Indulgence’ exempting Catholics and dissenters from punishment for infractions of the laws

  27. Appointed Catholics to office in army and civil government • 1688: second ‘Declaration of Indulgence’ ordered to be read in all Anglican Churches

  28. Glorious Revolution (1688-89) • Whigs and Tories extend invitation to Mary and William to “invade” England from Holland and take the throne • 1688—William’s armies enter London/James’ armies desert him/he flees to France • Early 1689—Parliament offered crown to William III and Mary II jointly,

  29. Declaration of Rights Supremacy of Parliament (rulers denied right to make or suspend laws, levy money, or maintain a standing army w/out consent of Parliament) • Free elections • Freedom of debate for members of Parliament, who would meet frequently • Reasonable bail and trial by jury for the people

  30. The Bill of Rights (Dec, 1689) • additional provisions, including the barring of a Catholic as ruler • 1689—Toleration Act granted dissenters freedom of conscience, legal right to worship in public, but tightened restrictions on Catholics • 1690—James II forces in Ireland defeated by William III

  31. Other Developments to 1715 • Lloyd’s of London insurance company founded 1688 • Bank of England (commercial bank) founded 1694 • London Stock Exchange founded 1698

  32. Mary II dies, 1694 • William III ruled alone until his death in 1702 • Queen Anne 1702-1714:last of Stuarts • Act of Settlement 1702 passed, to ensure succession of crown would pass to German House of Hanover 1707—Act of Union combined Scotland and England into Great Britain

  33. Age of Walpole • 1714: Hanoverian dynasty came to the throne • George I faced challenge to his title • Stuart James Edward (1688-1766) son of James II landed in Scotland 1715 • Troops marched southward, but were defeated by George I troops

  34. Robert Walpole (1676-1745) • Debt in England controlled by South Sea Company • Gov’t bonds traded for stock in company • Stock price soared; then crashed in 1720 • Investors sold holdings; exchanged profits • Parliament intervened • Under Walpole, parliament honored national debt

  35. Saved England’s financial integrity • Walpole=England’s 1st prime minister • Originator of Cabinet system of gov’t • Not chosen by House of Commons • Real source of power: personal support of King

  36. Ability to handle House of Commons • Ironfisted control of government patronage: • Bought support for himself/his policies • He supplied people jobs, appointments, favor, gov’t contracts

  37. Corruption=glue of political loyalty • “Let sleeping dogs lie”—peace abroad; status quo home

  38. Parliament, 1700’s: House of Commons: not democratic nor representative • Members elected from boroughs: only a few were large enough to hold elections • Most had few electors • Rotten boroughs: Old Sarum—Pitt family

  39. Supremacy of Parliament=strong unity • British monarch & parliament could raise tax revenues and loans to wage war • All Britons paid taxes—no exemptions • Bank of England secured credit market • Strong finances=cornerstone of British power • Freedom of political beliefs—debate in newspapers flourished; speech/association • No large standing army

  40. Netherlands: • UP—led by William of Orange; William III of England • Gov’t was republic: States General • Provinces had authority • States General negotiated w/provinces • Holland dominated States General

  41. Dutch religiously tolerant • Calvinist Reformed Church—official church of nation • Catholics and Protestants also lived in UP • Haven for Jews • All people lived peacefully together • Urban Prosperity: enriched themselves and had high standard of living

  42. Urban consolidation; transformation of agriculture—drained & reclaimed much land from sea—steady supply of grain—cheap grain = land for meat and dairy; tulips extensive trade and finance; overseas commercial empire; manufacture; shipbuilding; • 1675: More people lived in cities than anywhere else in Europe; 60% • Decline: began in 18th century • Upon William III death in 1702, various local provinces prevented the emergence of another strong Stadtholder

  43. Unified political leadership vanished • Naval supremacy passed to British • Fishing industry declined • Dutch lost technological superiority in shipbuilding • Countries traded w/each other directly, not using Dutch ships • Disunity in provinces hastened economic decline • BUT maintained financial dominance

  44. Emergence of Prussia • 1415—received Brandenburg (Berlin) • 1618—inherited duchy of Prussia, but size=weakness—geographical separation • Legacy of Frederick William Great Elector of Brandenburg (1640-1688)

  45. 1660—E. Prussia independent of Polish rule • Monarchy allied w/Junkers • 1701: Brandenburg becomes Prussia—recognized in 1713 Treaty of Utrecht

  46. Frederick King in Prussia: • Built palaces • Founded Halle University 1694 • Patronized the arts • Lived luxuriously • 1701: War of Spanish Succession

  47. King in Prussia”Becomes Frederick I, passed on title to Frederick William I in 1713 • Frederick William I King of Prussia (r.1713—1740) • Eccentric • One of most effective Hohenzollerns • Imposed strict austerity • Some jobs abolished • Salaries lowered

  48. Kabinett • all lower officials submitted relevant documents to Frederick William I • FWI examined papers, made decisions, issued orders • Organized bureaucracy along military lines • All departments united: General-Ober-Finanz-Kriegs-und-Domanen-Direktorium • (General Directory) • Imposed taxed on nobles • Made remaining feudal dues monetary payments • Administrative loyalties=duties to monarch as political institution

  49. Army • grew from 39,000 to 80,000 by 1740 • Third/fourth largest army in Europe • Each local district (canton) supplied quota of soldiers • 1725: FWI wore officer’s uniform • One regiment=tallest soldiers in Europe

  50. Laws, customs, royal attention made officer corps highest social class in state • Junker nobility, army, monarchy=one political unit • FWI had best army in Europe; but avoided conflict • 1740—FWI dies; son Frederick II (the Great) inherits the throne