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LSB Matching Revisited. Source: IEEE Signal Processing Letters (Accepted for future publication) Authors: Jarno Mielikainen Speaker: Chia-Chun Wu ( 吳佳駿 ) Date: 2006/03/13. Outline. Introduction LSB replacement The proposed scheme Experimental results Conclusions Comments.

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lsb matching revisited

LSB Matching Revisited

Source: IEEE Signal Processing Letters (Accepted for future publication)

Authors: Jarno Mielikainen

Speaker: Chia-Chun Wu (吳佳駿)

Date: 2006/03/13

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • LSB replacement
  • The proposed scheme
  • Experimental results
  • Conclusions
  • Comments
introduction
InternetIntroduction
  • Steganographic

Stego image

Cover image

Secret message: 01011001110…

lsb replacement
LSB replacement

xi

xi+1

mi

mi+1

yi

yi+1

the proposed scheme
Example:

f (161, 150) = 0

f (163, 150) = 1

f (162, 150) = 1

f (162, 150) = 1

f (162, 151) = 0

The proposed scheme
  • Modified version of the LSB method
  • Binary function f (l, n)

Property 1:

Property 2:

embedding algorithm
Embedding algorithm

Embedding algorithm for a pair of pixels.

embedding messages 1 3
Case 1: embedding “0”, “0”

10100010

10010111

0

0

162

151

yi

yi+1

mi

mi+1

Case 2: embedding “0”, “1”

162

150

0

1

10100010

10010110

yi

yi+1

mi

mi+1

Embedding messages (1/3)

xi

xi+1

embedding messages 2 3
Embedding messages (2/3)

Case 3: embedding “1”, “0”

xi

xi+1

mi+1

mi

yi

yi+1

f (163, 150) = 1

f (161, 150) = 0

embedding messages 3 3
Embedding messages (3/3)

Case 4: embedding “1”, “1”

xi

xi+1

mi

mi+1

yi

yi+1

f (163, 150) = 1

f (161, 150) = 0

experimental results 1 2
Experimental results (1/2)
  • 1000 JPEG images
  • All size 384×256
  • HCF COM detectors

The center of mass (COM) of the histogram characteristic

function (HCF) introduced by Harmsen et al. [4]

Ker [5] proposed using the adjacency histogram instead of the usual histogram.

experimental results 2 2
Experimental results (2/2)

The x-axis has been scaled to focus on a region of interest.

ROC curves for the calibrated

adjacency HCF COM.

ROC curves for the calibrated

HCF COM.

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The proposed method allows an embedding of the same amount of information into the stego image as LSB matching but with fewer changes to the cover image.
  • The detection of the existence of the hidden messages using the HCF COM-based detectors is less efficient against the method compared to LSB matching.
comments
Comments
  • The embedding cannot be performed for saturated pixels, i.e., pixels that have either a minimal (0) or maximal (255) allowable value.
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