More than 3 times the size of the United States W ide variety of climates, vegetation, resources - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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More than 3 times the size of the United States W ide variety of climates, vegetation, resources
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More than 3 times the size of the United States W ide variety of climates, vegetation, resources

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  1. More than 3 times the size of the United States • Wide variety of climates, vegetation, resources • Distinct cultural traditions and economic adaptations • Also see some similarities in social organization and religion

  2. Near coastline, land drops off to coastal plains • Some provide fertile farmland, others desert, swamp, sandy beaches Geography • East, region of deep, steep-sided valleys, narrow lakes • Mountain ranges rim Africa, example Ethiopian Highlands in northeast • Continent has varied landscape • Plateaus cover much of central, southern interior • Low, wide plains across northern, western interior • South of Sahara, mighty rivers flow across plains, including Congo, Zambezi, Niger • Region called the Sahel, strip of land dividing desert, wetter areas SAHARA DESERT • Farther south of the Sahara, band of tropical savanna, open grassland • Extends east from Central Africa, wraps back toward south • Tall grasses, shrubs, trees grow there; variety of herd animals, majority of Africans live there TROPICAL RAINFORESTS

  3. Early Societies • Common Features • Many societies developed village-based cultures / extended family = household • Families with common ancestors formed clans to which all members loyal • Women and men had specific roles • Age-Sets • In some areas, people took part in type of group called age-sets • Men who had been born within same two, three years formed special bonds • Men in same age-set had duty to help each other • Religion • Many believed that unseen spirits of ancestors stayed near • To honor spirits, families marked certain places as sacred places, put specially carved statues there • Families gathered to share news, food with ancestors, hoping spirits would protect them • Shared belief in ANIMISM

  4. Iron Age of Africa The spread of iron technology after the 500s BC changed farming practices in sub-Saharan Africa. As a result, African society changed. Influence of TRADE in East Africa

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  6. C 10 sec 3

  7. Kingdoms and Empires of Sub-Saharan Africa 800 – 1500 CE Ghana = Center of 4-5th C African Gold and Salt Trade (converted to Islam by 10th C) Offered protection for merchants (from Arabia By 7th C) 70-90 days to cross the Sahara

  8. Mansa Musa’s Hajj 1324-1325 • entourage of 60,000 • 500 men each carrying a • 6 lb gold staff • 80 camels each carrying • 300 lbs of gold dust • 500 slaves distributed along the way • as gifts • gifts of gold led to devaluing of • gold on global market by 25% • market didn’t recover for 25yrs • brought back Arab scholars, • artists and architects = built • libraries, mosques, schools Empire of Mali Sundiata (r. 1230-1255 CE) Mansa Musa (r. 1312-1337 CE)

  9. Mosque at Djenne, Mali

  10. Empire of Songhai • Sunni Ali (r. 1464-1492 CE) • A man of the people • Allowed local leaders to stay in power • Built a navy of 400 ships • Tolerated Islam and traditional African beliefs

  11. In societies dominated by oral tradition, art replaces written language Benin = “lost wax” process of sculpture What does the existence of these bronze plaques indicate about Benin culture c. 1000 CE?

  12. C 10 sec 3 • Mali • Established by King Sundiata • Height of empire under Mansa Musa (famous hajj) • Became wealthy from control of gold trade • Built many mosques, libraries, schools in Timbuktu • Empire declined after his death

  13. Kingdom of Kongo: 1000CE (Congo River) Centralized authority royal currency system Slaves = war captives, Debtors, suspected witches, Criminals, status symbols (NOT land), Used as agricultural labor (Chattal slavery??) Internal slave trade = 10,000-20,000 slaves/ year (With increased demand) = 10 million slaves to Islamic world (750-1500 CE) (Zanj Revolt 869 CE in Mesopotamia 15,000 slaves revolt/ controlled Basra) Cowry shells as standardized currency