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The Enlightenment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Enlightenment. John Locke People have natural rights. It is the job of government to protect these natural rights. If government does not protect these rights, the people have the right to overthrow it. Thoma s Hobbes

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TheEnlightenment

  • John Locke
  • People have natural rights. It is the job of government to protect these natural rights. If government does not protect these rights, the people have the right to overthrow it.
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • People are greedy and selfish. Only a powerful government can create a peaceful, orderly society.
  • Baron de Montesquieu
  • The powers of government should be separated into three branches. Each branch will keep the other branchesfrom becoming too powerful.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • In a perfect society, people both make and obey the laws. What is good for everyone is more important than what is good for one person.
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Impact of the Enlightenment

  • Greater numbers of people began to question established beliefs and customs.
  • Government Censorship
    • As Enlightenment ideas gained in popularity, government and Church leaders worked to defend the established systems. They started a campaign of censorship to suppress Enlightenment ideas. Many writers, including Voltaire, were thrown into prison, and their books were banned and burned.
impact of the enlightenment
Impact of the Enlightenment
  • Enlightened Despots
    • Maria Theresa – ruler of Austria during the 1700s
      • Improved tax system by making nobles and clergy pay taxes
      • Eased the tax burden on peasants
      • Primary education
    • Joseph II – ruler of Austria
      • Modernized government
      • Appointed competent officials
      • Religious tolerance
      • Ended censorship
      • Implemented legal reforms
impact of the enlightenment1
Impact of the Enlightenment
  • Enlightened Despots
    • Catherine the Great – ruler of Russia in the 1700s
      • Corresponded with Voltaire and Montesquieu
      • Asked for advice from nobles and free peasants
      • Built schools and hospitals
      • Promoted the education of women
impact of the enlightenment2
Impact of the Enlightenment
  • Democracy and Nationalism
    • Individualism!
      • A belief in personal freedom, and a sense of the basic equality of human beings.
    • Nationalism!
      • As people in a country drew together to fight for a democratic government, strong feelings of nationalism arose. These ideas contributed to an age of revolution…