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  1. Data Abstraction: The Walls • Abstract Data Types (ADT) • Specifying ADTs • The ADT List • The ADT Sorted List • Designing an ADT • Implementation of ADTs • C++ classes • Array based implementation of ADT List. COP3530 Data Structures

  2. Abstract Data Type • A moduler program is easier to read, write, and modify. • Focus on “what” a module does. Not “how” • Build loosely coupled functions. • Functional Abstraction. • Information Hiding. What to hide? • Not only hide, but make it inaccessible. • Hide implementation details from others. COP3530 Data Structures

  3. Walls • Imagine a wall separating task Q and T. • The user task Q needs to know what T does. • Q need not know how T does it. • Wall prevents Q’s method of solution to depend on the task T’s method of solution. • If T changes the implementation, Q does not have to be changed. • If T’s specification changes, Q needs to change. COP3530 Data Structures

  4. Walls (contd) Task T First Implementation Task Q Client of T Task T Second Implementation COP3530 Data Structures

  5. ADT Operations Program that uses function S Implementation of function S Request op Result of Op COP3530 Data Structures

  6. What is ADT? Solution to problems often require operations on data. Broad categories of operations: Add data to a data collection Remove data from a data collection Make a query about the data collection Details vary from application to application. Not all problems require all types of operations. COP3530 Data Structures

  7. What is ADT? (contd) Data Abstraction “What” opeations you can do with data. Not “how” to do them. ADT = Collection of Data + Operations Often, the data collection needs to maintain certain integrity constraints. Data Structures are useful to implement ADTs. COP3530 Data Structures

  8. Data Structures Data structures are constructs that you can define in a programming language. Arrays, Structures are data structures. You can combine basic data structures to make more complex data structures. Data Structures are part of ADT implementation. You should also focus on efficiency of operations when choosing data structures. COP3530 Data Structures

  9. Data Structure: An example. Suppose you want to store both names and salaries of a group of employees. const MAX_EMPLOYEES = 500; string empNames[MAX_EMPLOYEES]; double empSalary[MAX_EMPLOYEES]; string class takes care of memory to accommodate any size string. COP3530 Data Structures

  10. Data Structure: An example Alternative way for the previous example: const MAX_EMPLOYEES = 500; typedef struct { string name; double salary; } Employee; Employee employees[MAX_EMPLOYEE]; If language doesn’t support, we build new ADTs. COP3530 Data Structures

  11. ADT vs Data Structure • ADT is like a ice dispenser machine. • The dispenser supports operations like ADT • Chilled water • Crushed ice • ice cubes • Water and ice are like data. • The internal design of the dispenser is like the internal design of the ADT. We need data structures to build ADT. COP3530 Data Structures

  12. Building ADT User of ADT wants operations to be fast. Builder of ADT wants implementation to be simple. User will look for an ADT that meets their requirement just like a customer will shop for a refrigerator that is convenient. User will look at the ADT interface for suitability not its implementation details. COP3530 Data Structures

  13. Wall for the ADT Add Remove Find Display Program Data Structure Request Response Interface Wall of ADT operations COP3530 Data Structures

  14. Specifying an ADT Consider a list of grocery items in 1 column Where do you add a new item? At the beginning At the end Anywhere in the middle. There is a sequence for the items. Each item has a predecessor except first. Each item has a successor except the last. COP3530 Data Structures

  15. Specifying an ADT (contd) How do you specify the Add operation? Add newitem at position pos. pos = 1  new item is first item pos can be between 1 and (# of items in list + 1) How do you specify remove? Remove item at position pos. How do you retrieve an item? Retrieve item at position pos. Find the length of the list. COP3530 Data Structures

  16. List ADT Create an empty list. Destroy a list. Check if the list is empty. Find the number of items in the list. Insert an item at a given position. Delete an item at a given position. Retrieve (look) an item at a given position. COP3530 Data Structures

  17. List ADT Operations // Create an empty list. CreateList() // Destroy a list. DestroyList() // Return the # of items in list. ListLength() COP3530 Data Structures

  18. List ADT Operations(contd) // Insert a new item at position // newPos of a list, if // 1 <= newPos <= ListLength()+1 // The new item becomes the item // at position newPos. Success // indicates whether the operation // was successful or not. ListInsert(newPos, newItem, success) COP3530 Data Structures

  19. List ADT Operations(contd) // Delete the item at position pos // if 1 <= pos <= ListLength(). // The existining items are // renumbered accordingly. // success indicates whether the // operation was successful or not. ListDelete(pos, success) COP3530 Data Structures

  20. List ADT Operations(contd) // Retrieve the item at position // pos of a list into dataItem, if // 1 <= pos <= ListLength(). The // list is left unchanged. success // indicates whether the operation // was successful or not. ListRetrieve(pos, dataItem, success) COP3530 Data Structures

  21. Using List ADT myList.CreateList() myList.ListInsert(1, milk, success) myList.ListInsert(2, eggs, success) myList.ListInsert(3, butter, success) myList.ListDelete(2, success) myList.ListLength() COP3530 Data Structures

  22. ADT Contract • Client programs should only rely on ADT specification, not on its implementation. • As long as client follows the rules, any change in the implementation of the ADT will not affect the client program. • The specification of ADT is the contract between the ADT and its client. • Client can use the ADT based only on the contract. COP3530 Data Structures

  23. List ADT Usage • Client wants to display all items in a list. DisplayList(list) // Display the items in list. for (pos = 1..list.ListLength()) { list.ListRetrive(pos, dataItem, success) Display dataItem } COP3530 Data Structures

  24. List ADT Usage Replace(list, pos, newItem, success) // Replaces item at pos in list by // newItem. success indicates whether // the operation was successful or not list.ListDelete(pos, success) if (success) { list.ListInsert(pos, newItem, success) } COP3530 Data Structures

  25. Contract Advantages • Client does not need to get distracted about the ADT implementation details. • Client can concentrate on ADT usage. • Improvements in implementation of ADT affects only the ADT code, not client code. • ADT implementation is isolated from client. • contract binds the ADT implementers. COP3530 Data Structures

  26. Sorted List ADT • Consider a list of items sorted by name. • How are the list operations affected now? • We no longer need the position for insert. • position is implicit except for retrieve. • The ADT operations must make sure that the list always remains sorted. • For example, insert need to add the new item at the appropriate place. COP3530 Data Structures

  27. Sorted List ADT Specification // Insert newItem into its proper // sorted position in a sorted // list. success indicates whether // the operation was successful // or not. SortedListInsert(newItem, success) COP3530 Data Structures

  28. Designing an ADT • Consider an application where you want to print all holidays in a year. • We may need an ADT that deals with dates. • Clearly, we need an operation to get the first date of a year. • We need to know if a date is holiday. • Given a date, we need to find the next date. • Compare two dates. COP3530 Data Structures

  29. ListHolidays ListHolidays(year) // Displays the dates of all // holidays in a given year. date = FirstDay(year); while (IsBefore(date, FirstDay(year+1))) { if (IsHoliday(date)) { write date + “is a holiday” } date = NextDay(date); } COP3530 Data Structures

  30. Implementing ADTs • Given the ADT specification, how do we implement the ADT? • We choose an appropriate data structure. • Verify if all the operations can be implemented with this data structure. • If efficiency is part of the specification, then we need to verify that too. • Look at alternative data structures and choose the best. COP3530 Data Structures

  31. Implementing ADTs • Once you choose the data structure, you should use top-down approach to implement each of the ADT operations. • As you work through successive level of abstraction, you will break the data structure into smaller pieces. • Refine until the data structure can be easily implemented in the target language. COP3530 Data Structures

  32. Implementing ADTs • Data structure and the implementation of the operations should be hidden from the client programs. • In non-object oriented languages, both data structure and the ADT operations are distinct pieces. • The data structure may not be hidden from the client. • Clients might violate the wall and access the data structures directly. This may be intentionally or accidentally. COP3530 Data Structures

  33. Implementing ADTs • Object-oriented languages have better support for enforcing the wall of the ADT. • C++ provides a way to prevent the clients from accessing the ADT data. • Hiding the data and implementation details is not straight forward but can be done with careful planning. • The algorithm can be easily hidden by placing all the code in .cc files and giving clients only object or library files. COP3530 Data Structures

  34. C++ Classes • OOD deals with a collection of objects and their relationship. • C++ classes are used to represent these objects. • Objects provide encapsulation. (Walls) • Object = Data + Operations (or methods). • Object hides its inner details from the programmers who uses it. • ADT operations are object’s behaviors. • Encapsulation hides implementation details. COP3530 Data Structures

  35. Object Object’s data and methods are encapsulated Methods Request Results Data COP3530 Data Structures

  36. Classes and Instances Class is a new data type in C++. variables of this type are called instances. class has datamember as well as functionmembers. Every member function has access to all the data members. Thus, they need not be passed as parameters. To access the data or function member of a class instance, you qualify the member with the instance using the . notation. COP3530 Data Structures

  37. Classes and Instances (contd) An object is an instance of a class. By default, all members of a class are private. The class designer can designate members as belonging to public category. Only public member are accessible to clients. Clients are functions or program that created the object. All members of a structure are public by default. COP3530 Data Structures

  38. Constructor and Destructor Every ADT has support for Create and Destroy. All classes in C++ have 1 or more constructor functions and 0 or 1 destructor function. Constructors are used to initialize the object. Constructors are called automatically when an object is created. Destructor is called automatically when the object is destroyed. Only one. COP3530 Data Structures

  39. Constructors Name of constructors is same as class name. Constructors should not have return type. Not even void. Constructors can be overloaded. Default constructor is one with no parameters. If a class has no constructors, then the compiler will supply a default constructor which basically does nothing. Copy constructor has one parameter whose type is same as the class. const reference. COP3530 Data Structures

  40. Constructors (Example) class Sphere { public: // Default Constructor Sphere(); // Copy Constructor Sphere(const Sphere &rhs); // Another constructor Sphere(double initialRadius); : } COP3530 Data Structures

  41. Constructors (contd) // Default Constructor called. Sphere sphere1; // Copy Constructor called. Sphere sphere2(sphere1); If a class is missing default constructor but has others, you must initialize an object with something when you declare. Sphere sphere1; // invalid. COP3530 Data Structures

  42. Constructor Coding Assume that Sphere class has variable radius of type double in private section. Sphere::Sphere() { radius = 1.0; } Sphere::Sphere(const Sphere &rhs) { radius = rhs.radius; } :: is scope resolution operator. COP3530 Data Structures

  43. Constructor Coding (contd) An alternative better way to initialize data members of a class is to use the intializer list. The body of the function can be used other computational work, if any. The Initializers are allowed only for constructor functions. Use , for additional variables. Sphere::Sphere():radius(1.0) { } Sphere::Sphere(const Sphere &rhs): radius(rhs.radius) { } COP3530 Data Structures

  44. Destructor • Destructors are useful to perform cleanup work when an object is destroyed. • In particular, they are useful to free any dynamic memory allocated by constructors. • If there is no work to be done when an object is destroyed, there is no need for the destructor function. Sphere::~Sphere() // No parameters { } COP3530 Data Structures

  45. Compiler Generated Constructors • If a class has NO constructors, compiler supplies a default constructor that does nothing. • If a class is missing a copy constructor, the compiler will generate one that simply assigns the data members of one instance to those of the others. • If a class is missing destructor function, the compiler will supply one. Does nothing. COP3530 Data Structures

  46. Implementation • Typically, we place the code for all member functions of a class and non-member functions related to the class in the source file (.cpp or .cc). • We can compile this independly of the application program and create the object file. • The object file can also be placed in a library file. COP3530 Data Structures

  47. Sphere Member Function (example) Assume PI is defined in sphere.h double Sphere::Area() const { return 4.0 * PI * radius * radius; } double Sphere::SetRadius(double newRadius) { if (newRadius >= 0) { radius = newRadius; } } Exercise: Read the rest on page 132. COP3530 Data Structures

  48. Using Sphere Class (p 133) #include <iostream.h> #include <sphere.h> int main() { Sphere unitSphere; // default is 1.0 Sphere mySphere(5.1); unitSphere.DisplayStatistics(); mySphere.SetRadius(4.2); return 0; } COP3530 Data Structures

  49. Array-Based ADT List • One way to implement a list is using an array and an integer to store the length. • Item at Position 1 is stored at index 0. • Item at Position 2 is stored at index 1 etc. • We need to decide on capacity of array. • If array is full, Insert will be unsuccessful. • Item type depends on the application. • Insert and Delete involve shifting of items. COP3530 Data Structures

  50. Array Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 C - 1 … 12 3 19 10 7 ? ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unused entries ADT Position size 5 Array-Based ADT List (contd) COP3530 Data Structures