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GIS Program 6th GIS Workshop. Introduction to ArcGIS GIS CONCEPT. Eng. Hussain Darwish Technical College-Baghdad. Geographic Information Systems. Eng.Hussain Darwish Technical College-Baghdad. A Generic Definition of GIS. Geographic = spatially referenced data

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gis program 6th gis workshop
GIS Program6th GIS Workshop

Introduction to ArcGIS


Eng. Hussain Darwish

Technical College-Baghdad

geographic information systems
Geographic Information Systems

Eng.Hussain Darwish

Technical College-Baghdad

a generic definition of gis
A Generic Definition of GIS
  • Geographic = spatially referenced data
  • Information = data processed into a usable form
  • System = a framework for manipulating, analyzing and presentation of information
what is a geographic information system gis
What is a Geographic Information System (GIS)?
  • A GIS is an organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and people, to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information.
  • A GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially-reference data, as well [as] a set of operations for working with data . . . In a sense, a GIS may be thought of as a higher-order


gis requirements
GIS requirements

1. Data input, from maps, aerial

photos, satellites, surveys, GPS, and other


2. Data storage, retrieval, and query

3. Data transformation, analysis,

and modeling, including spatial


4. Data representation (reporting), such as maps,

reports, and plans

Basic Questions Asked
  • with a GIS:
  • • What is at..._____? (Location)
  • • Where is it..._____? (Condition)
  • • What has changed...? (Trend)
  • • Which is the best way...? (Routing)
  • • What is the pattern...? (Pattern)
  • • What if...? (Modeling)
what is a geographic information system gis1
What is a Geographic Information System (GIS)?
  • An information system has a full range of functions to:
    • process observations
    • process measurements
    • provide descriptions
    • explain data
    • make decisions
gis process


RegisterMap Base

Store Datain Computer


Convert Datato DigitalFormat



GIS Process
gis data
gis system





Map DigitizingSystem

Statistical Analysis System




Geographic Analysis System

StatisticsTabular Data

CartographicDisplay System


GIS System
gis data format
GIS Data Format
  • There are two formats used by GIS systems to store and retrieve geographical data:
    • Raster data
    • Vector data
spatial data model basic data format
Spatial Data Model: Basic Data Format
  • GIS are driven by spatial data
  • Two basic spatial (coordinate/geometric) data exist
    • Vector: based on geometry of
      • points
      • lines
      • polygons
    • Raster: based on geometry of
      • grid cells (images, bitmaps, DEMs)_
raster format
Raster Format
  • Data are divided into cell, pixels, or elements
  • Cells are organized in arrays
  • Each cell has a single value
  • Row and Column Numbers are used to identify the location of the cell within the array.
  • Perhaps the most common example of raster data is a digital image.
vector format
Vector Format
  • Data are associated with points, lines, or boundaries enclosing areas (polygons)
  • Points are located by coordinates
  • Lines are described by a series of connecting vectors (line segments described) ,by the coordinates of the start and end point
  • Areas or polygons are described by a series of vectors enclosing the area.
vector format1
Vector Format
  • Any number of factors or attributes can be associated with a point line or polygon.
  • Data are stored in two files:
    • a file containing location information
    • a file containing information on the attributes
  • A third file contains information needed to link positional data with their attributes.
gis data types
GIS Data Types
  • Features
    • Point datasets
    • Line datasets
    • Polygon datasets
  • Surfaces
    • Grid datasets
    • TIN datasets
    • Images datasets
  • Networks
    • Simple denstritic networks
    • Simple loop networks
vector and raster representation of point map features

GIS VectorFormat

GIS RasterFormat

Map Feature

(X,Y)Coordinate in space

Cell Located in an Array row and column

Vector and Raster Representation of Point Map Features
point features
Point Features
  • All points required to define the feature geometry have to be stored as part of the feature definition.
point features1
Point Features
  • Point datasets

One-to-one relation between features in the map and records in the table.

line features
Line Features
  • Line datasets

One-to-one relation between features in the map and records in the table.

area features
Area Features
  • Polygon datasets

One-to-one relation between features in the map and records in the table.

surfaces features
Surfaces Features
  • Grid datasets
data structure of surfaces

(x, y)

Number of columns

Cell size

Number of rows

Data Structure of Surfaces
  • Grid datasets:
    • Cellular-based data structure composed of square cells of equal size arranged in rows and columns.
    • Grid definition requires: (1) the coordinates of the upper-left corner, (2) the cell size, (3) the number of rows, (4) the number of columns, and (5) the value at each cell.
    • Cells that do not store any value are called NODATA cells.
surfaces features1
Surfaces Features
  • TIN datasets
data structure of surfaces1
Data Structure of Surfaces
  • Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) Datasets:
    • Dataset constructed by connecting points -- for which the TIN parameter is known – forming triangles.
    • Triangle sides are constructed by connecting adjacent points so that the minimum angle of each triangle is maximized.
    • Triangle sides cannot cross breaklines.
    • The TIN format is efficient to store data because the resolution adjusts to the parameter spatial variability.
data structure of surfaces2
Data Structure of Surfaces
  • Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) Datasets
data structure of surfaces3
Data Structure of Surfaces
  • Image datasets:
    • ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG)
    • Windows bitmap images (BMP) [.bmp]
    • Multiband (BSQ, BIL and BIP) and single band images [.bsq, .bil and bip]
    • ERDAS [.lan and .gis]
    • ESRI Grid datasets
    • IMAGINE [.img]
    • IMPELL Bitmaps [.rlc]
    • Image catalogs
    • JPEG [.jpg]
    • MrSID [.sid]
    • National Image Transfer Format (NITF)
    • Sun rasterfiles [.rs, .ras and .sun]
    • Tag Image File Format (TIFF) [.tiff, .tif and .tff]
    • TIFF/LZW
  • Simple networks
  • Simple loop networks
data structure of features



Data Structure of Features
  • A line is an open sequence of points in which the first and last points are called nodes, and the remaining intermediate points are called vertices.
data structure of features1
Data Structure of Features
  • Simple lines
  • Complex lines
data structure of features2
Data Structure of Features
  • Simple polygons
  • Complex polygons
data structure of features3
Data Structure of Features
  • Space-filling polygons
  • Not space-filling polygons
data structure of features4













Data Structure of Features
  • Line and polygon topology
data structure of networks

























Data Structure of Networks
  • Simple loop networks:
    • System of simple lines -- called links -- connected at their nodes.
    • Links can point in either direction or in both directions.
vector and raster formats
Vector and Raster Formats
  • Most GIS software can display both vector and raster data.
  • Raster formats are efficient when comparing information among arrays with the same cell size.
  • Raster files are generally very large because each cell occupies a separate line of data.
  • Vector formats are efficient when comparing information whose geographical dimensions are different.
vector data model
Vector Data Model
  • Major types (formats) of vector data available in ArcGIS
    • ESRI GeoDatabases
    • ESRI shapefiles
    • ArcInfo coverages and libraries
    • CAD files (AutoCAD DWG, DXF;Microstation DGN)
    • StreetMap files
    • Spatial Database Engine (SDE) data
    • ASCII point coordinate data
    • Linear measure (route) data_
vector data model1
Vector Data Model
  • Characteristics of the vector data model:
    • + Features are positioned accurately
    • + Shape of features can be represented correctly
    • + Features are represented discretely (no fuzzy boundaries)
    • – Not good for representing spatially continuous phenomena
    • – Potentially complex data structure (especially for polygons); can lead to long processing time for analytical operations_
raster data model
Raster Data Model
  • Raster spatial data model
    • origin is set explicitly
    • cell size is always known
    • cell references (row/column locations)are known
    • cell values are referencedto row/column location
    • values represent numerical phenomena orindex codes for non-numerical phenomena_
raster data model1
Raster Data Model
  • Characteristics of the raster data model:
    • Rectangular grid of square cells
    • Shape of discrete polygonal features generalized by cells
    • Continuous (surface) data represented easily
    • Simple data structure_
raster data model2
Raster Data Model
  • Raster data are good at representing continuous phenomena, e.g.,
    • Elevation, slope, aspect
    • Soil types.
    • Electromagnetic reflectance (photographic or satellite imagery)
    • Radar images.
    • Continuous phenomena
comparison of raster and vector formats
Raster formats are efficient when comparing information among arrays with the same cell size.

Raster files are generally very large because each cell occupies a separate line of data, only one attribute can be assigned to each cell, and cell sizes are relatively small.

Vector formats are efficient when comparing information whose geographical shapes and sizes are different.

Vector files are much smaller because a relatively small number of vectors can precisely describe large areas and a many attributes can be ascribed to these areas.

Comparison of Raster and Vector Formats



comparison of raster and vector formats1
Raster representations are relatively coarse and imprecise

Vector representations of shapes can be very precise.

Comparison of Raster and Vector Formats



Most GIS software can display both raster and vector data. Only a limited number of programs can analyze both types of data or make raster type analyses in vector formats.

attributes data
Attributes data

Types of Attributes data

  • Numeric data ( e.g. size, area, temperature,…etc.).
  • Semantic data (e.g. class, type, name, quality…etc.).

Each of them may be stored in a coded manner.

relational database model attribute data structures
Relational Database Model & Attribute Data Structures
  • The “where” of GIS is determined by coordinate (map) data structures, but …
  • The “what” of GIS is determined by tabular (relational database) data structures
  • Thus, tabular data are just as important as coordinate data.
relational database model attribute data structures1
Relational Database Model & Attribute Data Structures
  • Attribute data are stored in database tables.
  • Tables are composed of:
    • fields(columns)


    • records(rows)_
relational database model attribute data structures2
Relational Database Model & Attribute Data Structures
  • Each vector data source has an attribute table
relational database model attribute data structures3
Relational Database Model & Attribute Data Structures
  • You may already be familiar with some types of relational databases
    • dBase
    • rBase
    • MS Access
    • MS Excel (database functionality)
    • Oracle, INFORMIX, INGRES, SQL Server
    • MySQL, PostgreSQL
    • INFO (in ArcInfo)_
relational database model attribute data structures4
Relational Database Model & Attribute Data Structures
  • Tables can be linked and joined (“related”) by use of common values in fields
relational database model attribute data structures5
Relational Database Model & Attribute Data Structures
  • Different types data that may have attribute tables in ArcGIS
    • Vector
      • point attribute
      • polygon attribute
      • line attribute
      • node attribute*
      • text attribute*
      • route & event*
      • CAD attributes
    • Raster
      • value attribute tables*_

* in ArcInfo coverage & grid data only

what is a geographic information system gis2
What is a Geographic Information System (GIS)?
  • In a geographic information system, information is characterized spatially.
  • In a GIS the common purpose is decision making to manage:
    • land
    • resources
    • transportation
    • OR any other spatially distributed activity
gis apllication
  • Examples of application of automated methods include a wide range:engineering mining natural resource management agriculture planning (all gov’t levels) etc...
gis application
GIS Application
  • … but generally can be grouped into four basic categories:
          • Forest & Wildlife
          • Hydrological
          • Minerals
          • Land Use Planning/Environmental Impact
          • Public Works
          • Emergency Response
          • Legal Records
          • Transportation and network management
gis application1
GIS Application
      • Market Area Analysis
      • Site Selection
      • Routing
      • Field Records
      • Animal Management
      • Climate Change / Human Impact
major gis only journals
Major GIS-Only Journals
  • International Journal of Geographical Information Systems
  • Geographical Systems
  • Transactions in GIS
  • Geo Info Systems
  • GIS World
arcview basics






ArcView Basics

Project (the foundation. Contains the documents)


compile maps for printing

display and query spatial data.

contains multiple themes (i.e. layers of data).

the actual data.

Contains geographical features of the same kind (points, lines or polygons) and their attributes

contain the attribute data of a theme

introduction to gis 1
Introduction to GIS (1)
  • Four basic steps for map production
    • Data Collection
    • Data Display / Explore
    • Data Analysis
    • Map Composition
  • . Map Characteristics In addition to feature locations and their attributes, the other technical characteristics that define maps and their use includes:
  • Map Scale
  • Map Accuracy
  • Map Extent and
  • Data Base Extent
Fundamentals of GIS
  • Mapping Concepts, Features & Properties A map represents geographic features or other spatial phenomena by graphically conveying information about locations and attributes. Locational information describes the position of particular geographic features on the Earth's surface, as well as the spatial relationship between features, such as the shortest path from a fire station to a library, the proximity of competing businesses, and so on. Attribute information describes characteristics of the geographic features represented, such as the feature type, its name or number and quantitative information such as its area or length. Thus the basic objective of mapping is to provide
  • descriptions of geographic phenomenon
  • spatial and non spatial information
  • map features like Point, Line, & Polygon
map features
Map Features
  • Map Features Locational information is usually represented by points for features such as wells and telephone pole locations, lines for features such as streams, pipelines and contour lines and areas for features such as lakes, counties and census tracts. Point feature A point feature represents as single location. It defines a map object too small to show as a line or area feature. A special symbol of label usually depicts a point location. Line feature A line feature is a set of connected, ordered coordinates representing the linear shape of a map object that may be too narrow to display as an area such as a road or feature with no width such as a contour line. Area feature An area feature is a closed figure whose boundary encloses a homogeneous area, such as a state country soil type or lake
where gis is being applied l
Where GIS is being Applied l:
  • Urban Planning, Management & Policy
  • Zoning, subdivision planning
  • Land acquisition
  • Economic development
  • Code enforcement
  • Housing renovation programs
  • Emergency response
  • Crime analysis
  • Tax assessment
where gis is being applied ii
Where GIS is being Applied: II
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Monitoring environmental risk
  • Modeling storm water runoff
  • Management of, floodplains, wetlands, forests.
  • Environmental Impact Analysis
  • Groundwater modeling and contamination tracking
where gis is being applied iii
Where GIS is being Applied: III
  • Political Science
  • Redistricting
  • Analysis of election results
  • Predictive modeling
  • Civil Engineering/Utility
  • Locating underground facilities
  • Designing alignment for freeways, transit
  • Coordination of infrastructure maintenance
where gis is being applied iv
Where GIS is being Applied: IV
  • Business
  • Demographic Analysis
  • Market Penetration/ Share Analysis
  • Site Selection
  • Education Administration
  • Attendance Area Maintenance
  • Enrollment Projections
  • School Bus Routing
where gis is being applied iv1
Where GIS is being Applied: IV
  • Real Estate
  • Neighborhood land prices
  • Traffic Impact Analysis
  • Contributing Disciplines to
  • GIS
  • • Landscape Ecology
  • • Geography
  • • Cartography
  • • Remote Sensing
  • • Photogrammetry
  • • Surveying
  • • Geodesy
  • • Statistics
  • • Operations Research
  • • Computer Science
  • • Mathematics
  • • Civil Engineering
  • GIS As A Set Of
  • Interrelated Subsystems:
  • 1. Spatial and Attribute Data Base
  • 2. Cartographic Display System
  • 3. Map Digitizing System
  • 4. Database Management System
  • 5. Geographic Analysis System
  • 6. Image Processing System
  • 7. Statistical Analysis System
  • 8. Decision Support System