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The nutrition and health transition in Malaysia. Mohd Ismail Noor Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia. Table 1. Selected socio-demographic statistics Malaysia (1980-2000). YEAR 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Population (‘000) 11442 12981 14620 20689 23263

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The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

The nutrition and health transition in Malaysia

Mohd Ismail Noor

Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia


The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

Table 1. Selected socio-demographic statistics Malaysia (1980-2000)

YEAR

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Population (‘000) 11442 12981 14620 20689 23263

Infant Mortality Rate/1000 23.9 16.5 13.1 10.3 7.9

Crude Birth Rate/1000 30.9 31.9 28.4 26.1 24.5

Crude Death Rate/1000 5.3 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.4

Life Expectancy Rate (yrs)

Males 66.4 67.7 68.9 69.4 70.2

Females 70.5 72.4 73.5 74.2 75.0

Gross National Product (USD *‘000) 20,556 28,735 43,046 83,238 124,326

Per Capita GNP (USD) 3734 4581 6042 10058 13361

Annual GDP Growth Rate (%) +7.4 -1.4 +8.3 +9.5 +8.5

*USD 1.00 = RM 2.50 (1980-1995), RM 3.80 (2000)

Source: Dept. of Statistics Malaysia (1980-2000)

Noor, Public Health Nutrition, Feb 2002


The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

100% (1980-2000)

90%

80%

70%

60%

% of Calories

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

1961-63

1970-72

1979-81

1988-90

1997

Cereals

Starchy roots

Vegetables & fruits

Pulses

Meat, fish, egg

Milk-excl butter

Sweeteners

Oils & fats

Miscellaneous

Figure 1. Changes in sources of calories in Malaysia, 1961-1997

Source: Food Balance Sheet FAO (1961-1997)

Noor, Public Health Nutrition, Feb 2002


The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

Table 2. Per capita consumption (kg/year) of major food (1980-2000)

commodities (1985-2000)

ITEM YEAR

1985 1990 1995 2000

Crops

Rice 102.2 89.8 86.9 85.7

Vegetables 42.4 45.5 48.5 52.0

Fruits 39.7 44.3 49.9 53.5

Live stock

Beef 2.4 3.2 4.3 5.3

Mutton 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6

Poultry 14.6 19.0 30.0 35.3

Pork 10.1 12.0 13.2 8.1

Eggs 11.4 15.7 16.4 16.8

Milk* 37.2 37.7 51.5 53.0

Food Fish 33.4 34.8 39.1 49.0

Food Import (USD Million) 909 1205 2017 NA

Note: * Per capita consumption in litres/year

Source: Ministry of Agriculture (1999)

Noor, Public Health Nutrition, Feb 2002


The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

Table 3. Fast food industries in Malaysia – a selected list (2000)

Brand Year No. of Market Sales

(origin) (Est) Outlet Share (%) (USD million)

KFC (USA) 1973 294 45 152.3

Mc Donald’s (USA) 1982 141 30 92.0

Pizza Hut’s (USA) 1984 85 8 31.6

A & W (USA) 1961 44 4 19.1

Marrybrown (Local) 1981 88 4 NA

Sugar Bun (Local) 1981 45 * 9.5 (1999)

Kenny Roger (USA) 1994 25 * 9.5

Domino’s Pizza (USA) 1997 17 * NA

*Others 9%, USD 1.00 = RM 3.80

Source: The EDGE (2001)

Noor, Public Health Nutrition, Feb 2002


The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

Male list (2000)

Female

Combine sexes

% of obesity

14

12

10

93-94

1998

1990

1997

1998

8

(a) (b)

6

4

2

0

Figure 2. Prevalence of obesity among (a) children and (b) adolescents

in urban area

Source: Bong & Jaafar (1995), Tee et al. (1998), Ismail (1998)

Noor, Public Health Nutrition, Feb 2002


The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

40 list (2000)

35

overweight

obese

30

25

20

% of obesity

15

10

5

0

rural

rural

Male

Male

urban

urban

Female

Female

93-94

96-97

93-94

96-97

Figure 3. Prevalence of obesity in adult according to sexes and area

Source: Ismail et al. 1995, Lim et al. 2000

Noor, Public Health Nutrition, Feb 2002


The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

Table 4. Basal metabolic rate (MJ/day), total daily energy list (2000)

expenditure (MJ/day) and physical activity level (PAL)

Subjects Age Male Female

(yr) BMR TDEE PAL BMR TDEE PAL

Adolescent25 12-14 5.08 7.89 1.55 4.80 7.09 1.48

Adolescent26 16-18 5.76 8.64 1.50 5.02 7.64 1.52

Young Adults2718-30 5.85 9.40 1.61 4.77 7.58 1.59

Adults27 30-60 5.66 9.53 1.68 4.79 8.17 1.70

Elderly28 >60 4.92 7.35 1.50 4.37 6.74 1.54

Armed Forces29 20-30 5.74 12.08 2.10 NA NA NA

Elite Athlete30 20-30 6.84 14.91 2.18 5.39 10.67 1.98

Source: 25Yap (2001), 26Victor (1999), 27Ismail et al. (1994), 28Razali (1996),

29Ismail et al. (1996), 30Ismail et al. (1997)

Noor, Public Health Nutrition, Feb 2002


The nutrition and health transition in malaysia

7000 list (2000)

100000

6000

80000

5000

4000

60000

Number of admission

3000

40000

2000

20000

1000

0

0

1985

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Admission

Death

CVD

Hypertension

Cancer

Diabetes

CVD

Hypertension

Cancer

Diabetes

Number of deaths

Figure 4. Number of admission and mortality

Source: Ministry of Health (1985-1997)

Noor, Public Health Nutrition, Feb 2002