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  1. Regional Higher Education Cooperation -Evolution of an Analytical Framework- International Symposium Regional and Inter-regional Cooperation of Universities University of Tokyo February 17, 2011 Professor Jane Knight Ontario Institute for Studies in Education University of Toronto, Canada

  2. Focus of Presentation • HE cooperation within the context of regionalization Introduce ‘Analytical Framework for Regionalization of Higher Education’ • Part of comparative study on regionalization of HE in Asia, Africa, and Latin America • Invite reflection on key issues and the way forward for closer HE regional cooperation in Asia © Knight 2011

  3. Outline of Presentation • Regionalization trends in general • HE regional initiatives in Africa and Asia • 4 lines of inquiry- HE and regional cooperation • Continuum from regional cooperation to regional integration • 3 approaches to HE regionalization • Questions and issues © Knight 2011

  4. Regionalization trends • More emphasis on economic and political regional integration • Growing labour mobility within regions • Popular mass culture moving within regions • Increased intra-regional collaboration among “knowledge communities’ • More intra-regional HE academic mobility, networks and collaborative activities • Influence of Bologna process © Knight 2011

  5. Recent or planned developments in Asia and Africa for closer Higher Education regional cooperation ………. Some examples *in addition to ongoing bilateral and multi-lateral HEI collaborations © Knight 2011

  6. HE Regionalization in Africa -1 Recent and Upcoming Developments • Pan- African University (5 HEIs in 5 regions) • African Quality Rating Mechanism (AQRM) • AfriQAN- network of QA agencies • Nyerere African Scholarship Scheme • Updated Arusha convention- Qualifications Rec • Regional Centres of Excellence • OER Africa • NRENS- Research and Education Networks • African Higher Education and Research Space © Knight 2011

  7. HE regionalization in Africa - 2 Key Actors/Drivers • AAU- Ass of African Universities • AU- African Union • ADEA- Ass for the Development of Ed in Africa • Regional University Associations/ HEIs • SARUA, IUCEA, CAMES Approach is to strengthen Regional University Ass to build pan African initiatives and HE Space © Knight 2011

  8. HE Regionalization in Asia- 1 Recent and Planned Developments • APQN, AQN • MIT- Mobility program among Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand (SEAMEO/RIHED) • Campus Asia- Mobility among Japan, Korea, China • UMAP (10 years old) • Asian Academic Credit System (UCTS,ACTS) • AP UNESCO convention on recognition of qualifications © Knight 2011

  9. HE Regionalization in Asia-2 Actors/Drivers • SEAMEO/RIHED • East Asia Summit • AUN, APRU, APQN • ASEAN • APEC • ASEM • Regional Bureau for UNESCO ? © Knight 2011

  10. Diversity of Concepts, issues and approaches A review of policy documents, conference reports, media articles, academic papers, blogs shows a multitude of issues, terms and approaches to describe the growing importance of regional considerations in Higher Education © Knight 2011

  11. Four Lines of Inquiry • Impact of regionalism on HE • Regionalization of HE • HE as a tool for regional integration • Inter-regional cooperation in HE © Knight 2011

  12. Regional …….ism ization tion -Regionalism....Ideology -Regionalization ….Process -Regional Integration…. Condition Definition of region is complex and challenging - functional, political, geographic, cultural, historic - multi-faceted and multi-layered © Knight 2011

  13. Multitude of Terms -Confusion and Complexity- Convergence Harmonization Community Collaboration Cooperation Coordination Interdependence Integration Partnership Alignment © Knight 2011

  14. Conceptual mapping of these terms © Knight 2011

  15. Convergence Harmonization Integration Community Interdependence Cooperation Collaboration Partnership Coordination Coherence Alignment Continuum of Regionalization- Region Building © Knight 2011

  16. Continuum of Regional Building From cooperation to integration Progression on the Continuum ??? Gradual ……………………………Quantum Leap Informal ……………………………………… Formal Internal ………………………………………External Bottom Up ……………………………… Top Down Reactive ………….Proactive..…….. Strategic © Knight 2011

  17. 3 Approaches to Regionalization of HE -Analytical Framework- • Functional Approach • Structural Approach • Political Approach © Knight 2011

  18. FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURAL POLITICAL Interdependent Relationship Among 3 Approaches © Knight 2011

  19. 3 Approaches to Regionalization of HE • Functional Approach • Alignment of systems • Collaborative Programs • Structural Approach • Major actors and frameworks ‘Organizational architecture’ • Political Approach • Declarations, summits, treaties © Knight 2011

  20. Functional HE Regionalization - 1 • Alignment of Systems • Quality Assurance • Academic credit system • Degree levels • Qualifications’ recognition • Academic Years/Semesters • Qualification Frameworks • ITC platforms © Knight 2011

  21. Functional HE Regionalization -2 Collaborative Programs • Academic Mobility • student, professor, scholar, administrators • Crossborder programs and providers • branch campus, twinning, franchise, double/joint degrees, sandwich programs • Institutional agreements • Research networks and projects • Centres of excellence • Pan-regional university © Knight 2011

  22. Structural HE Regionalization Organizational Architecture • Types • Governmental bodies • Professional/NGOs organizations • Networks • Foundations/ Funders/ • Levels • Global- Regional, Sub-regional, Inter-regional © Knight 2011

  23. Political HE Regionalization • Declarations • Agreements/Conventions/Treaties • Summits © Knight 2011

  24. REGIONALIZATION GLOBALIZATION CATALYST REACTOR AGENT Functional Structural Political • Alignment of Systems • Collaborative Programs • Organizations • Networks • Frameworks • Declarations • Agreements/Treaties • Summits

  25. Questions and issues? Is regionalization of HE in Asia rhetoric or a new reality? Should it be informal or intentional? Bottom up or top down? Is there an optimal balance? Is regionalization of HE being driven by HE actors or by other sectors- economic and political? Or both? What are the key rationales driving HE regionalization? Who benefits? © Knight 2011

  26. Thank you jane.knight@utoronto.ca I look forward to your comments on the framework and suggestions for improvement. Knight, Jane (2011) Regionalization of Higher Education: Towards an Analytical Framework for East Asia GIARI Working Paper to be published http://www.waseda-giari.jp/eng/research/achievements/09.html © Knight 2011