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Preview Starting Points Map: European Centers of Learning Main Idea / Reading Focus Dawn of Modern Science Quick Facts: The Scientific Method Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math. The Scientific Revolution. Preview , continued Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry

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Starting Points Map: European Centers of Learning

Main Idea / Reading Focus

Dawn of Modern Science

Quick Facts: The Scientific Method

Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math

The Scientific Revolution

Preview, continued

Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry

Science and Society

Faces of History: Galileo Galilei

Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of the Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution


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The Scientific Revolution

Main Idea

New ways of thinking led to remarkable discoveries during the Scientific Revolution.

  • Reading Focus
  • What changes led to the dawn of modern science?
  • What discoveries occurred in astronomy, physics, and math during the Scientific Revolution?
  • How did early scientists advance knowledge in biology and chemistry?
  • How did scientific ideas move beyond the realm of science and affect society?

The Old View

New Viewpoints

  • Scholars relied on traditional authorities for beliefs about structure of universe
  • Geocentric theory, Aristotle
    • Earth center of universe
    • Sun, moon, planets revolved around sun
  • Ideas upheld by church, accepted authority for European intellectuals
  • Scholars began to challenge traditional authorities, 1500s
  • Scientific Revolution, new way of thinking
  • Posed theories, developed procedures to test ideas
  • Why open to new ideas?
    • Exploration
    • New lands, new people, new animals

Dawn of Modern Science

Some Middle Ages scholars sought answers about the natural world from the church. In the mid-1500s, others began to think in new ways.

Ancient scholars could provide no information about new lands, people, animals

Age of Exploration led scientists to study natural world more closely

Other things to be discovered, things unknown to ancients

Navigators needed more accurate instruments, geographic knowledge

Scientists examined natural world, found it did not match ancient beliefs

Dawn of Modern Science


Scientific Method Scholars

New Approach to Investigation

  • Francis Bacon, experimentation to gain scientific knowledge
  • Rene Descartes, reason key
  • Believed everything should be doubted until proved by reason
  • Relied on math, logic
  • Ideas of both continue to influence modern scientific methods
  • Scientific Method
  • Identify problem
  • Form hypothesis
  • Perform experiments to test hypothesis
  • Record results
  • Analyze results, form conclusion

The Scientific Method


Find the Main Idea

What was the Scientific Revolution?

Answer(s): a new way of thinking about the natural world that challenged traditional views and instead relied upon experimentation


Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math

  • Early scientists
  • Made significant contributions in astronomy, physics and math
  • Began to explain complexities of solar system, limits of physical world
  • Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, among first
  • Copernicus
  • Found geocentric theory of movement of sun, moon, planets not accurate
  • Concluded sun, not earth, near center of solar system
  • Heliocentric theory, earth revolves around sun
  • Copernicus’ theory
  • Idea of earth orbiting sun was not completely new
  • Copernicus developed detailed mathematical explanation of process
  • Was first scientist to create complete model of solar system

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

  • Copernicus’ famous book not published until last year of his life
  • Knew church would oppose work
  • Work contradicted teachings of church
  • Weaknesses of theory
  • Mathematical formulas did not predict positions of planets well
  • Copernicus did not want to be ridiculed for weaknesses
  • Died 1543 after work published, other scientists expanded on ideas


Kepler, German Mathematician

  • Brahe used observatories
  • Developed system to explain planetary movement
  • Believed sun revolved around earth
  • Other five known planets revolved around sun
  • Hired as Brahe’s assistant to form mathematical theory from measurements of planets
  • Published result of measurements of orbit of Mars after Brahe’s death

Brahe and Kepler

  • Brahe, Danish Astronomer
  • Wrote book proving bright object over Denmark sky was newly visible star
  • Called it supernova, distant exploding star suddenly visible on earth
  • Book impressed Denmark’s King Frederick II
  • Gave Brahe money to build two observatories
Kepler solved main problem of Copernican theory

Copernicus assumed planets orbited in circle

Kepler found assumption untrue

Proved planets orbited in oval pattern, ellipse

Wanted to prove Copernicus wrong, instead proved heliocentric theory correct

Kepler’s mathematical solar system model also correct

Kepler’s Solution


Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math

  • More support
  • Italian scientist Galileo Galilei
  • Built first telescope used for astronomy
  • Scanned heavens beginning in 1609
  • Starry Messenger
  • Galileo described discoveries
  • Craters on moon, sunspots
  • Saturn, moons of Jupiter
  • Milky Way made up of stars
  • Change in science world
  • Isaac Newton, English scientist
  • Brought together astronomy, physics, math
  • Wondered about gravity
  • Principia
  • Book explained law of universal gravitation
  • Gravity affects objects on earth, also in universe
  • Keeps planets in orbit
Newton developed calculus, new kind of math

Used calculus to predict effects of gravity

German philosopher Gottfried von Leibniz also developed calculus at same time

Each accused the other of plagiarism

Historians believe it was simple case of independent discovery

Newton’s Findings



How did Copernicus and Brahe differ in their views of the universe?

Answer(s): Copernicus—all planets orbit the sun; Brahe—sun orbits Earth, other planets orbit sun




William Harvey

  • European Middle Ages doctors relied on Greek, Galen
  • Galen’s works inaccurate
  • Flemish doctor Andreas Vesalius became known for work in anatomy
  • Used bodies of executed criminals for dissection
  • Hired artists to produce accurate drawings
  • On the Workings of the Human Body, 1543
  • English physician, early 1600s
  • Observed, explained workings of human heart
  • Described blood, circulatory system functions

Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry

Just as astronomers moved away from the works of ancient Greeks, other scientists used the scientific method to acquire new knowledge and make great discoveries in the fields of Biology and Chemistry.


Antony van Leeuwenhoek

  • Dutch scientist, 1600s
  • Used interest in developing magnifying lens to invent microscope
  • First to describe appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, yeast, other microorganisms
  • Robert Hooke
  • English physician, inventor
  • Used early microscope to describe appearance of plants at microscopic level
  • Credited with creating the term cell

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier

Robert Boyle

  • French chemist, 1700s
  • Developed methods for precise measurements
  • Discovered law of Conservation of Mass, proved matter could not be created, destroyed
  • Recognized, named oxygen, introduced metric system, invented first periodic table
  • Father of modern chemistry
  • First to define element
  • The Sceptical Chemist, 1661, described matter as cluster of tiny particles (now called atoms)
  • Changes in matter occurred when clusters rearranged
  • Boyle’s law - temperature, volume, pressure affect gases




What were the major contributions made in biology and chemistry?

Answer(s): importance of anatomy and dissection; function of blood and circulatory system; invention of microscope; discovery of certain laws of matter


Science and the Church


  • Church most powerful institution in Europe, Middle Ages
  • Primary resource for knowledge, learning
  • Cathedral schools, universities trained people to run the church
  • Most scientists did not want to challenge role of Christianity
  • Church explained world through inspiration, revealed truth
  • Science explained world through logical reasoning

Science and Society

As science assumed greater significance, the question of the role of the Roman Catholic Church in a changing culture became important. While the church opposed the views of many scientists, it benefited from new discoveries that made Renaissance art and architecture possible.

The church feared reason as an enemy of faith, but eventually began to embrace some of the achievements of the Scientific Revolution.


Science and the Church

  • Galileo’s Theories
  • Brought him into direct conflict with the church
  • Church leaders pressured him not to support ideas of Copernicus
  • Dialogue concerning Two Chief World Systems, 1632, showed support
  • Trial
  • Pope Urban VII ordered Galileo to Rome to stand trial before Inquisition
  • Church wanted to stamp out heresy, or dissenting views
  • Trial held, April 1633
  • House Arrest
  • Galileo stated would not use Copernican theory in work
  • Received lenient sentence in return
  • Pope ordered Galileo under house arrest, where he spent rest of life

Science and Art

  • Renaissance
  • Study of art, architecture not separate from study of science
  • Artists learned anatomy in order to paint the body
  • Artists
  • Experimented with chemistry of paints, nature of light
  • Used math to create compositions of perfect balance
  • Architecture
  • Mathematics, physics crucial to great architecture
  • Also used in engineering achievements of the time
  • Science and religion
  • Combined to produce great artistic achievements of Renaissance
  • Most art, architecture dedicated to glory of God
Scientific Revolution established new way of thinking about physical world

Great advances made in astronomy, physics, biology, chemistry

Advances influenced developments in arts, architecture

Impact of Scientific Revolution soon would cause philosophers, scholars to wonder if reason could solve poverty, war, ignorance

Science and Community


Draw Conclusions

How did the Scientific Revolution have an impact beyond the realm of science?

Answer(s): led people to question the Church; inspired great artistic achievements; led to new ideas about government, religion, education, and economics.