OTC Medicines • Drugs/Medicines you can buy without a prescription • OTC medicines may relieve aches, pains and itches. • Some may prevent or cure diseases, like tooth decay and athlete's foot. • Others help manage recurring problems, like migraines or cold symptoms.
Over the Counter (OTC)/Prescription Drugs • 1. All medicines in US must meet standards set by FDA – Food and Drug Administration • 2. Prescription Meds – given only with the written approval of a licensed physician • 3. OTC Meds – medicines you can buy without a prescription
OTC Medicines • Active ingredients • Dosage strength • Dosage form • Warning & directions for use
Analgesics (Pain Relievers) • Tylenol(Acetaminophen ) • Most popular • Good for mild to moderate levels of pain • Reduces fever (antipyretic) • Doesn’t upset stomach
Analgesics (Pain Relievers) • Tylenol(Acetaminophen ) • Will not help with inflammation or thinning of the blood (anticoagulant) • May effect liver • It works by changing the way the body senses pain and by cooling the body
Analgesics • Aspirin (AcetylsalicylicAcid) • Mild to moderate pain reliever • Reduces fever (antipyretic) some bacteria and viruses are killed by higher temperatures • Antiplatelet (blood thinning properties)
Analgesics • Aspirin (AcetylsalicylicAcid) • Anti-inflammatory • It works by stopping the production of certain chemicals (prostaglandins) that cause fever, pain, swelling, and blood clots.
Aspirin (AcetylsalicylicAcid) • Can upset stomach (reduces mucus lining) • Prolongs bleeding time • Reyes Syndrome: • Can cause brain damage, coma, and death if taken during flu or chicken pox episodes for young people.
Reyes Syndrome • The CDC, FDA, AAP, and the U.S. Surgeon General recommend that aspirin and products containing aspirin not be given to children under 19 years of age during episodes of fever causing illness.
Aspirin Warning • “Children and teenagers who have or are recovering from chicken pox, flu symptoms or flu should NOT use this product. If nausea, vomiting, or fever occur, consult a doctor because these symptoms could be an early sign of Reye’s Syndrome, a rare but serious illness.”
Analgesics • Advil/Motrin (Ibuprofen) • Mild to moderate pain reliever, fever reducer, & and anti-inflammatory • Became OTC in 1984 • BEST for inflammation • Can upset stomach
Analgesics • Advil/Motrin (Ibuprofen) • Works at a lower dose and lasts longer than aspirin • It works by stopping the body's production of chemicals (prostaglandins) that causes pain, fever, and inflammation.
Analgesics • Aleve (Naproxen) • Similar to aspirin • Became OTC 1994 • Last about 2x as long as others in the body • Can cause kidney problems
Antihistamines • Antihistamines • Can prevent histamines from attaching to your cells and causing symptoms (ex. Itching, swelling, runny nose, watery eyes) • Histamines • substances that try to attach to the cells in your body and irritate them (allergic reactions)
Antihistamines • Common examples • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) • Loratadine (Alavert, Claritin) • Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) • Doxylamine (Vicks NyQuil, Alka-Seltzer Plus Night-Time Cold Medicine)
Decongestants • Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) • Narrow the blood vessels in the nose reducing swelling in the nasal passage. • reduces the amount of mucous made by your nose. • Although Pseudoephedrine is an OTC medicine it’s sale is limited.
Anti-tussives • Substances that suppress coughing • Raises coughing threshold • Should not be used to suppress a productive cough • productive cough vs. non-productive cough • A productive cough produces phlegm or mucus (sputum). The mucus may have drained down the back of the throat from the nose or sinuses or may have come up from the lungs • A nonproductive cough is dry and does not produce sputum. A dry, hacking cough may develop toward the end of a cold or after exposure to an irritant, such as dust or smoke
Expectorants • Loosen mucus from the respiratory tract.
Stimulants • Products containing caffeine • Elevates heart rate • Increase alertness • Mild diuretic(increases urine output) • Can cause tremors, nervousness, stomach irritation, and headaches
Stimulants • Examples of products containing caffeine: • No Doz Tablets 100 mg • Vivarin tablets 200 mg
Vitamins • Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement and a prescription medication. • Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis • Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. Vitamin B6 is needed for protein metabolism. It is also essential for red blood cell metabolism. The nervous and immune systems need vitamin B6 to function efficiently
Vitamins • a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
Over the Counter (OTC)/Prescription Drugs Medicine Misuse – unintentional use of medicine • Ex. Taking too much or too little of a med Medicine abuse – intentionally taking medications for nonmedical reasons Drug Overdose – a strong, sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug