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Animal Science II. Principles of Animal Nutrition Adapted from: Amelia Fox North Iredell High School. Objective. Describe the six functions of a good ration. Rations. Maintenance of vital body processes to keep animals alive Growth by increasing size Bones, muscles, organs, tissue

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animal science ii

Animal Science II

Principles of Animal Nutrition

Adapted from: Amelia Fox

North Iredell High School

objective
Objective
  • Describe the six functions of a good ration
rations
Rations
  • Maintenance of vital body processes to keep animals alive
  • Growth by increasing size
    • Bones, muscles, organs, tissue
  • Fattening
    • Storing nutrients
    • Not for maintenance or growth
rations1
Rations
  • Production
    • Milk
    • Eggs
    • Wool or hair
  • Reproduction
    • gestation, parturition and lactation
  • Work
    • Other needs must be met first
    • Most U.S. livestock do no work (horses)
rations2
Rations
  • 1/3 to ½ of the ration fed to livestock is used for body maintenance
  • Maintenance must be met before nutrients are available for other functions
objective1
Objective
  • Define roughage and concentrates in relation to an animal ration
roughages
Pasture

Hay

Roughage

Silage

Legume

Straw

Hulls

Roughages
  • Contains more than 18% crude fiber when they are dry
roughages1
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

Roughages
  • Hay
  • Legumes
roughages2
Roughages
  • Hulls
  • Straw
roughages3
Roughages
  • Silage
  • http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADQ897.pdf
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZW4Bu7nYzhw
  • Pasture
roughages4
Roughages
  • What’s the difference between hay and straw?
  • http://www.usaforage.org/products/straw-vs-hay/
concentrates
Concentrates
  • Contains less than 18% crude fiber when they are dry
    • Grains-corn, oats, barley, wheat
    • By-products
      • Wheat bran
      • Cottonseed hulls
concentrates1
Concentrates
  • Liquid supplements
    • Molasses
    • Urea
  • Animal proteins
    • Meat scraps, fish, and blood meal
  • Plant proteins
    • Cottonseed meal
    • Soybean meal
    • Peanut meal
objective2
Objective
  • Explain the characteristics of a good ration
good rations
Good Rations
  • Balanced- has all nutrients needed in the right amounts and proportions at the least expense.
  • Palatable- tastes good so that animals will eat it.
    • Include a variety of feeds to improve palatability and make it easier to balance.
    • Succulent to make it fresh and appealing.
good rations1
Good Rations
  • Bulky to satisfy hunger and help digestive system function properly.
  • Slightly laxative to improve feed efficiency and prevent constipation.
  • Low Cost- best nutritional value possible at lowest cost because feed costs are about 75% of the total costs of raising livestock. Price per pound of energy and digestible protein determine if the ration is economical.
good rations2
Good Rations
  • Not harmful to health or quality of animal products.
  • Proper proportions of concentrates and roughages for type and age of animal. Examples: more roughages for cattle, more concentrate for swine and poultry, higher protein for younger animals, etc.
  • Uniformly mixed especially micronutrients and feed additives.
objective3
Objective
  • Interoperate the relationship between 100% dry matter basis and as-fed basis for rations
dry matter
Feed on 100% dry matter basis

Percent dry matter in feed

Pounds of feed as-fed

X

=

Dry Matter
  • All moisture has been removed
dry matter1
Dry Matter

100g can of dog food

As- Fed

Dry Matter

Protein 40%

Protein 10%

Protein 10g

Other 15%

Other 15g

Other 60%

Water 75g

Water 75%

air dry
Feed on a dry matter basis

Feed on an As-fed basis

=

Percent dry matter in feed

Air Dry
  • Still has moisture
dry matter vs as fed
Dry Matter vs. As-fed
  • The weight of 100% dry matter is less
    • No water or moisture is contained
  • Provides an accurate indication of feed content
    • Feeds can vary in moisture content
dry matter content
Dry Matter Content
  • 100% dry matter basis of sun cured hay is about 90% of as-fed basis
  • 100% dry matter basis of most fresh pasture grasses is about 20-30% of as fed basis
  • 100% dry matter basis of most corn (not silage) is about 90% of as-fed basis
dry matter content1
Dry Matter Content
  • Most feed will stabilize to about 90% dry matter in air drying
  • Storing high moisture feed materials will cause them to mold or build up heat
objective4
Objective
  • Identify the rules for feeding various kinds of livestock
rules for feeding livestock
Rules for Feeding Livestock
  • Beef Cattle (fattening)
    • 1 1/2 to 2 lbs. Of air-dried roughage and 2 lbs. of concentrate per 100 lbs. of body weight

Example: An 850 pound steer will need approximately:

    • 12.75 to 17 lbs. of roughage and
    • 17 lbs. concentrates
      • Total= 30 to 34 pounds of feed
rules for feeding livestock1
Rules for Feeding Livestock
  • Cattle (maintenance)
    • mainly roughage
    • air dried roughage should be ~2% body weight (1.8 dry matter)
    • Cows nursing calves should be fed 50% more than dry cows

Example:

A 1,213 pound cow should be fed about 24 pounds (1213 X .02= 24.26)

rules for feeding livestock2
Rules for Feeding Livestock
  • Swine
    • depends on size and age of the animal
    • depends on nursing
    • Pigs under 50 pounds and nursing sows need more protein than market hogs
  • Poultry
    • The ration is 10% of body weight
pearson square
Pearson Square
  • Objective

Determine the nutritional requirement from appropriate tables using the Pearson Square Method

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXLR3-1mZwE
finding nutritional information
Finding Nutritional Information
  • Called feeding standards
  • Metric vs. English
    • to convert kg to lb
    • multiply kg by 2.2
    • a 40 kg steer will weigh 88 lbs.
  • ME- metabolizable energy intake
pearson square1
12Pearson Square

1) Draw a square with lines connecting opposite corners and write the percent crude protein needed at the cross

pearson square2
Corn 8.9

12

Soybean Meal 45.8

Pearson Square
  • Write the feeds to be used and their crude protein content in the left-hand corners
    • lowest at the top highest at the bottom
pearson square3
45.8- 12= 33.8

Corn 8.9

12

12-8.9= 3.1

Soybean Meal 45.8

Pearson Square
  • Subtract the smallest number from the larger along the diagonal lines
pearson square4
Corn 8.9

33.8 parts corn

Soybean Meal 45.8

12

3.1 parts soybean meal

Pearson Square

36.9 total parts

pearson square5
Corn 8.9

33.8 parts corn

Soybean Meal 45.8

12

3.1 parts soybean meal

Pearson Square

Corn- 33.8 divided by 36.9 multiplied by 100= 92% corn

SBM 3.1 divided by 36.9 multiplied by 100= 8% SBM

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