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Madagascar periwinkle and Pacific yew. Lizz Cuzzacrea. http://www.cag.uconn.edu/plsc/plsc/images/Pretty_in_rose.jpg. http://oregonstate.edu/trees/conifer_genera/spp/image_big/pyew45.jpg. Madagascar periwinkle. Scientific name : Catharanthus roseus

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madagascar periwinkle and pacific yew

Madagascar periwinkle and Pacific yew

LizzCuzzacrea

http://www.cag.uconn.edu/plsc/plsc/images/Pretty_in_rose.jpg

http://oregonstate.edu/trees/conifer_genera/spp/image_big/pyew45.jpg

madagascar periwinkle
Madagascar periwinkle
  • Scientific name:Catharanthusroseus
  • Common and other names: Rose Periwinkle, Periwinkle, Vinca, Old-Maid, Ammocallisrosea, Cape Periwinkle, Chang Chu Hua, Church-Flower, Lochnerarosea, Magdalena, Myrtle, Pervenche de Madagascar, Ram-Goat Rose, Ratanjot, Red Periwinkle
  • Used to be known as Vincarosea

http://www.biodiversityexplorer.org/plants/apocynaceae/images/enb04741.jpg

classification
Classification

Kingdom Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

SuperdivisionSpermatophyta – Seed plants

Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass Asteridae

Order Gentianales

Family Apocynaceae – Dogbane family

Genus Catharanthus G. Don – periwinkle

Species Catharanthusroseus (L.) G. Don – Madagascar periwinkle

slide4

Origin: Madagascar

  • Cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics
  • Grown commercially for its medicinal uses
seeds
Seeds

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CARO14

slide7

Weed or invasive plant

  • Perennial and annual
  • Leaves - glossy, green, oval
  • Height - ~10 in
  • Flowers - pink, rose, or white
  • Sun exposure - direct light or sun
  • Soil - no rich soils
  • Drought-tolerant
  • Humidity/ temperature – moderate humidity and average temps.
  • Poisonous
medicinal uses before modern research
Medicinal Uses…before modern research
  • India - wasp sting
  • Hawaii - stop bleeding
  • Central America and parts of South America - sore throats, chest disorders, and laryngitis
  • Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica and other islands - eyewash
  • Africa - menorrhagiaand rheumatism
  • Surinamese - diabetes
  • Bahamas, Vietnam, Curacao and Bermuda
scientific research
Scientific Research
  • Began in mid-1950’s
  • World War II
  • Found several toxic alkaloids
  • Two anti-cancer alkaloids: vinblastine and vincristine
vinblastine and vincristine
Vinblastine and Vincristine
  • Dr. Gordon Svoboda with Lilly Corporation
  • Velban and Oncovin
  • Hodgkin’s disease and leukemia
  • Prognosis
  • Synthetic versions
slide11

http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/jjones/Content/vincristine.htmhttp://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/jjones/Content/vincristine.htm

how the alkaloids work
How the alkaloids work…
  • Prevents mitosis
  • Bind to tubulin
  • Prevents formation of spindles
threat and conservation
Threat and Conservation
  • Madagascar forests
  • Widely established
  • Grown commercially
  • Direct conservation is low priority
  • Powerful medicinal plant
pacific yew
Pacific yew
  • Scientific name: Taxusbrevifolia
  • Common and other names: Western yew
  • 7 species worldwide

http://pubs.acs.org/cen/images/8137/8137coverimagesmall.jpg

classification1
Classification

Kingdom Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

SuperdivisionSpermatophyta – Seed plants

Division Coniferophyta – Conifers

Class Pinopsida

Order Taxales

Family Taxaceae – Yew family

Genus Taxus L. – yew

Species Taxusbrevifolia Nutt. – Pacific yew

slide16

Origin: Pacific Coast of North America

  • Southern Oregon and northern California
  • Southeast Alaska
  • Idaho
seeds1
Seeds

http://plants.usda.gov/java/largeImage?imageID=tabr2_008_ahp.tif

slide19

Perennial

  • Climate - range moisture and temperatures
  • Soil - deep, moist, rich
  • Slow growth
  • In situ
  • Wood - hard and heavy
  • Flowering/fruiting - dioecious
  • Damaging agents - heat, frost, wind
  • Adaptation - needle length and cuticle thickness
  • Poisonous - alkaloid taxine
slide20

http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=259http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=259

wide variety of uses before modern research
Wide variety of uses…before modern research
  • Archery bows
  • Canoe paddles
  • Tool handles
  • Gunstocks
  • Boat decking
  • Furniture
  • Musical instruments
  • Carved figurines
  • Fence posts
  • Toko poles
  • Native tribes
scientific research1
Scientific research
  • 1962 – Arthur Barclay collects Pacific yew stem, bark, and fruit
  • 1964 – More bark collected and sent to Monroe Wall
  • 1966 – Taxol is isolated from bark
  • 1971 – Molecular structure is published
  • 1979 – Susan Horowitz
  • 1983-1998 – National Cancer Institure and Bristol-Myers Squibb
pacilitaxel
Pacilitaxel
  • Taxol
  • Structure
  • Prognosis
  • Semisynthesis

http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/jjones/Content/taxol.htm

http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8137/8137taxol.html

how it works
How it works…
  • Prevents replication
  • Binds to microtubules
  • Inhibits depolymerization
  • Inhibits breakdown of mitotic spindle
  • Cancer can’t spread
threat and conservation1
Threat and conservation
  • Slow growth
  • Bark is thin
  • Many trees to treat one patient
  • Other species
  • Overharvesting
  • Yew bug mite
  • Finite resource
  • Continue research
references
References
  • Cancerbusters. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Catharanthus/index.html
  • Catharanthusroseus. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from Floridata: http://www.floridata.com/ref/c/cath_ros.cfm
  • Catharanthusroseus (Madagascar periwinkle). (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from Kew: http://www.kew.org/plants-fungi/Catharanthus-roseus.htm
  • Catharanthusroseus. (2011). Retrieved January 2011, from National Tropical Botanical Garden: http://www.ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?rid=413&plantid=2497
  • Chemotherapy Drugs. (2005). Retrieved January 2011, from Chemocare: http://www.chemocare.com/bio/taxol.asp
  • Fighting Ovarian Cancer From The Forest. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Taxus/index.html
  • Madagascar Periwinkle. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from RxList: http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=96629&page=2
  • Madagascar Periwinkle. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from Suite101: http://www.suite101.com/content/madagascar-periwinkle-a-heat-tolerant-ground-co-a122798
  • Madagascar Periwinkle Flower. (2008-2011). Retrieved January 2011, from Guide To Houseplants: http://www.guide-to-houseplants.com/periwinkle-flower.html
  • Maximizing Returns. (2003, September 15). Retrieved January 2011, from Chemical & Engineering News: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8137/8137taxol.html
  • Murray, M. D. (1991). The tree that fights cancer - Pacific yew. Retrieved January 2011, from BNet: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1016/is_n7-8_v97/ai_11012477/pg_3/?tag=content;col1
slide27

Ombrello, D. T. (n.d.). Madagascar Periwinkle . Retrieved January 2011, from http://faculty.ucc.edu/biology-ombrello/pow/Madagascar_periwinkle.htm

  • Pacific (Western) yew. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from http://racerocks.ca/metchosin/trees/pacificyew/pacificyew.htm
  • Pacific Yew. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/taxus/brevifolia.htm
  • Pacific Yew. (2002-2011). Retrieved January 2011, from Herbs2000: http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_pacific_yew.htm
  • Pacific yew tree in Prostate Cancer. (2008-2010). Retrieved January 2011, from http://www.prostate-cancer.com/prostate-cancer-glossary/pacific-yew-tree.html
  • Petursson, H. (2003). The Biogeography of TaxusBrevifolia, Pacific Yew. Retrieved January 2011, from http://bss.sfsu.edu/holzman/courses/Fall%2003%20project/PacificYew.htm
  • Plants Database. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from USDA: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CARO14
  • Plants Database. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from USDA: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TABR2
  • Rose Periwinkle. (2000-2011). Retrieved January 2011, from Dave's Garden: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/185/
  • Rosy Periwinkle. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_periwinkle.htm
  • Taxol. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/jjones/Content/taxol.htm
  • Taxol - The drama behind total synthesis. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from http://www.org-chem.org/yuuki/taxol/taxol_en.html
  • Taxol. (2007). Retrieved January 2011, from National Historic Chemical Landmarks: http://acswebcontent.acs.org/landmarks/landmarks/taxol/disel.html
  • Taxusbrevifolia. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from VirginiaTech: http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=259
  • Taxusbrevifolia. (2011). Retrieved January 2011, from Native Plant Database: http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=tabr2
  • Vincristine/Vinblastine. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2011, from http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/jjones/Content/vincristine.htm