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The Cold War Begins. 1945-1952. Post-War America. 1946 to 1961: Four Main Themes. COLD WAR CONFIDENT NATION CONSUMERISM CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. Was it a time of “happy days or anxiety, alienation, and social unrest”?. 1948 to 1968: The “Vital Center”. A political consensus developed.

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The cold war begins

1946 to 1961:

Four Main Themes

  • COLD WAR

  • CONFIDENT NATION

  • CONSUMERISM

  • CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

Was it a time of “happy days or anxiety, alienation, and social unrest”?


The cold war begins

1948 to 1968:

The “Vital Center”

A political consensus developed

  • Anti-Communist

  • Economic growth can solve societies problems

  • Political pluralism


Postwar economic anxiety
Postwar Economic Anxiety

  • Fear of return to depression

  • Businesses called for an end to government controls over the economy


The cold war begins


Labor trouble inflation
Labor Trouble & Inflation

  • Worries about job security & inflation led to new labor demands

  • Organized labor called for crippling strikes in major industries


The cold war begins


Taft hartley labor bill 1947
Taft-Hartley Labor Bill (1947) of federal intervention

  • Passed over Truman’s veto

  • Banned closed shop & weakened labors rights


The cold war begins


Truman s economic policy
Truman’s Economic Policy textile industries in its “Operation Dixie”

  • Employment Act of 1946

    • Created the Council of Economic Advisors

    • Sought to promote maximum employment, production & purchasing power


Servicemen s readjustment act 1944
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (1944) textile industries in its “Operation Dixie”

  • GI Bill of Rights

  • Servicemen given educational & economic benefits



Civil rights
Civil Rights billion.

  • African-American’s fared a little better economically & politically, despite congressional refusal to pass civil rights & fair labor laws


The cold war begins


Long economic boom 1950 1970
Long Economic Boom: 1950-1970 hired Jackie Robinson

  • GNP (Gross National Product) began to climb after 1948 – nearly doubling in the 1950s & again in 1960s


The cold war begins


Middle class prosperity
Middle Class Prosperity plateau of growth that will last until 1970

  • “Chicken in every pot” of depression became desire for 2 cars in every garage

    • Plus a TV, air conditioner, swimming pool, vacation home, RVs & hoola-hoops for the kids


Women in the workforce
Women in the Workforce plateau of growth that will last until 1970

  • Many women decided to keep working after the war but did so under gender discrimination


The cold war begins


The cold war begins


The cold war begins

Suburban Living popular cultureThe Typical TV Suburban Families

Leave It to Beaver1957-1963

The Donna Reed Show1958-1966

Father Knows Best1954-1958

The Ozzie & Harriet Show1952-1966


Causes of growth
Causes of growth popular culture

  • Much of the continued economic growth caused by the “war economy” appropriations of the Cold War


The cold war begins


The cold war begins

National Defense Budget [1940-1964] American defense spending rolling through two decades



The cold war begins


The cold war begins


The sunbelt
The Sunbelt by the 90s but harvested a large percentage of the world’s food

  • Invention of air-conditioning, existence of cheap fuel, & large number of defense jobs in the south & west caused many Americans to move to the “sunbelt” following the war


The cold war begins


The suburbs
The Suburbs into the 1950s.

  • Low interest FHA & VA loans made it economical to own a home


The burbs
The Burbs into the 1950s.


The cold war begins


The cold war begins

$7,990 or $60/month with no down payment construction of suburban homes (Levittown)


The cold war begins


The cold war begins

Suburban Living tract homes

  • SHIFTS IN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, 1940-1970

    • 194019501960 1970

  • Central Cities 31.6% 32.3% 32.6% 32.0%

  • Suburbs 19.5% 23.8% 30.7% 41.6%

  • Rural Areas/ 48.9% 43.9% 36.7% 26.4%

  • Small Towns

    • U. S. Bureau of the Census


  • The baby boom
    The Baby Boom tract homes

    • Huge birthrate jump began in 1945, peaked in 1957, & tapered off to 1961

    • “Baby boom” generation has had a major impact on the economy & culture in America


    The cold war begins

    Baby Boomers tract homes

    “It seems to me that every other young housewife I see is pregnant.”

    British visitor to America, 1958


    The truman era

    The Truman Era tract homes

    1945-1952


    Harry s truman
    Harry S. Truman tract homes

    • “The average man’s average man.”

    • First president in many years without a college education


    The cold war begins


    Roots of the cold war

    Roots of politicsThe Cold War


    Us ussr similarities
    US & USSR Similarities politics

    • US & USSR resembled each other in many troublesome ways:

      • Large, expansionist, born in revolution, & believed their way was the best way


    The cold war begins

    Conflicting Interests politics

    • Soviet Goals

    • Wanted to rebuild Europe in ways that would help the Soviet Union recover from the huge losses it suffered during the war

    • Wanted to establish Soviet satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination and sympathetic to Soviet goals

    • Wanted to promote the spread of communism throughout the world

    • American Goals

    • Wanted conquered European nations to experience the democracy and economic opportunity that the United States had fought for during the war

    • Wanted to develop strong capitalist economies, which would provide good markets for American products

    vs


    The cold war begins

    The Cold War Summary: politics

    vs

    • Uneasy peace between the U.S. & Soviet Union.

    • Competition for world dominance & global power.

    • Fought on political & economic fronts rather than on military battlefields - even though the threat of war was always present.

    • Defined American foreign policy from 1946-1989.

    • It affected domestic politics & how Americans viewed the world & themselves.

    • Constant state of military preparedness & arms race

    • Propaganda war: Democracy vs. Communism

    • US policy: Support nations threatened by Communism


    The cold war begins

    The Cold War [1945-1991]: politicsAn Ideological Struggle

    Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”]

    US & the Western Democracies

    GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.[George Kennan]

    GOAL spread world-wide Communism

    • METHODOLOGIES:

    • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]

    • Arms Race [nuclear escalation]

    • Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars”

    • Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]


    Yalta conference
    Yalta Conference politics

    • Before A-bomb tested, US believed Soviet military would be needed to defeat the Japanese


    The cold war begins


    The cold war begins


    Potsdam conference
    Potsdam Conference Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union

    • Stalin warned indirectly about the existence of the Atomic bomb

    • Soviets felt slighted about being out the loop on the Manhattan Project


    United nations
    United Nations Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union

    • April 25, 1945: SF Conference creates UN Charter

    • Security Council responsible for settling disputes among nations


    American soviet relations
    American-Soviet Relations Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union

    • Decades of distrust & misunderstanding came to a head at the end of the war

    • 1945: Washington abruptly ended lend-lease to Soviets & refused to grant them loans while still aiding Britain


    Bretton woods conference 1944
    Bretton Woods Conference (1944) Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union

    • Agreement created the World Bank & the International Monetary Fund

    • Soviets refused to participate in either


    The baruch plan
    The Baruch Plan Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union

    • Bernard Baruch called for a UN agency to oversee nuclear power to halt weapons development

    • Stalin rejects the idea


    Postwar germany
    Postwar Germany Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union

    • 1945-46: Nuremberg Trials

      • 22 top Nazi war criminals put on trial for crimes against humanity

      • 12 hanged


    The cold war begins

    Nazi Eastern Europe to the Soviet Unionleaders being tried for war crimes and crimes against civilians: Established the principle: That individuals are responsible for the actions regardless if they are carrying out orders.


    Trial
    trial Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union

    Crimes against peace, humanity = war crimes

    Important principle established:

    Individuals responsible for their actions


    Trial1
    trial Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union

    Several Nazi leaders would be found guilty for crimes against humanity. Punishments ranged from prison sentences up to life and execution by hanging.


    The cold war begins


    The cold war begins


    The cold war begins

    The British, French, American, & SovietDivisions of Germany & Berlin


    The iron curtain falls
    The “Iron Curtain” Falls British, French, American, & Soviet

    • Soviets force the Eastern European countries behind what Winston Churchill called the “Iron Curtain”


    Fulton missouri 1946
    Fulton, Missouri (1946) British, French, American, & Soviet

    “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”


    The containment policy
    The Containment Policy British, French, American, & Soviet

    • 1947: George Kennan writes from Moscow describing that the goals of the Soviet Union were expansionary

    • Kennan suggests a policy of “containment”


    The cold war begins

    CONTAINMENT POLICY British, French, American, & Soviet

    1950’s

    Containment: Stop the expansion of Communism in Asia and Europe

    Democracy vs. Communism

    Bi-Polarization of the World

    Soviet Union/China and Allies

    US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies


    The truman doctrine
    The Truman Doctrine British, French, American, & Soviet

    • Greece & Turkey were turning leftist - danger of Soviet involvement

    • Truman issues his Doctrine describing the need to “contain” communism


    The buck stops here
    The Buck Stops Here British, French, American, & Soviet


    The cold war begins

    Truman Doctrine, 1947: British, French, American, & Soviet

    The first use of “containment”


    The cold war begins


    Marshall plan 1947
    Marshall Plan (1947) support democracy in Turkey & Greece

    • Sec of State Marshall develops European Recovery Program to stop communism (containment)

    • $12.5 Billion spent in Europe over 4 years


    The cold war begins


    The marshall plan
    The Marshall Plan Congress into action


    Berlin airlift 1948 49
    Berlin Airlift (1948-49) Congress into action

    • Stalin closes ground access to Berlin to choke off the Allies

    • US & British air power breaks the blockade through a massive airlift


    Berlin airlift
    Berlin Airlift Congress into action

    U.S. flew supplies 24/7 to feed West Berlin for 11 months.


    Iran crisis
    Iran Crisis Congress into action

    • Stalin tested the West's resolve in Middle East & began fomenting revolution in Iran

    • Truman’s protest caused Stalin to back down


    Us military is reorganized
    US Military is Reorganized Congress into action

    • National Security Act of 1947

      • Brought all of the armed forces under the Department of Defense

      • Created the Joint Chiefs of Staff


    The cold war begins


    The north atlantic pact 1949
    The North Atlantic Pact (1949) military intervention

    • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

    • Defensive alliance of US & 12 W. European countries

    • Greece & Turkey join 1952

    • West Germany in 1955


    The cold war begins

    N military interventionorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

    • United States

    • Belgium

    • Britain

    • Canada

    • Denmark

    • France

    • Iceland

    • Italy

    • Luxemburg

    • Netherlands

    • Norway

    • Portugal

    • 1952: Greece & Turkey

    • 1955: West Germany

    • 1983: Spain


    The cold war begins

    Warsaw Pact (1955) military intervention

    • U. S. S. R.

    • Albania

    • Bulgaria

    • Czechoslovakia

    • East Germany

    • Hungary

    • Poland

    • Romania


    The cold war begins

    The military interventionBipolarization of Europe

    NATO

    WARSAW PACT

    UNALIGNED

    OTHER


    Us east asia 1945 53
    US & East Asia (1945-53) military intervention

    • Reconstruction of Japan

      • Under General MacArthur Japan received a democratic constitution & aid for reconstruction

      • Japanese war criminals also tried & 7 executed


    The cold war begins


    The cold war begins


    Election of 1948
    Election of 1948 communists

    • Democrats nominate Truman

      • Platform of civil rights causes segregation south to form State Rights Party

      • Strom Thurmond runs as States Rights candidate


    The cold war begins


    Truman defeats dewey
    Truman Defeats Dewey patsy for the communist party

    • Though polls & pundits call for Truman defeat, he wins 300 to 189 in electoral vote

      • Dixiecrat Thurmond: 39 electoral votes


    The cold war begins

    1948 Election patsy for the communist party


    Truman s fair deal
    Truman’s Fair Deal patsy for the communist party

    • Truman’s State of the Union called for a Fair Deal including:

      • Aid to Education

      • National Health Insurance

      • Civil Rights Legislation


    The cold war begins

    • More Social Security patsy for the communist party

    • Public Housing

    • Repeal of Taft-Hartley

    • Streamlining of Federal Bureaucracy


    Point four
    Point Four patsy for the communist party

    • Point Four of Truman’s inaugural address calls for aid, along with scientific & technical assistance to third world countries to stop communism


    The second red scare
    The Second patsy for the communist partyRed Scare

    • American fears:

      • Spread of Communism

      • Nuclear War

      • Spies at Home

      • Economic Depression


    Truman s loyalty program
    Truman’s “Loyalty” Program patsy for the communist party

    • 1947: Launched to investigate “leftists” in the federal government

    • Employees, especially school teachers, were forced to take loyalty oaths


    Huaac
    HUAAC patsy for the communist party

    • House Un-American Activities Committee (1938-1975)

    • 1948: Investigations begin of suspected commies


    Hollywood ten
    “Hollywood Ten” patsy for the communist party

    • Government employees dismissed

    • Writers, movie producers & actors blacklisted



    Shocking events of 1949
    Shocking Events of 1949 anti-sedition Smith Act

    • China goes Communist (Mao defeats Chang Kai Shek = China & Taiwan)

    • Russians detonate their 1st atomic weapon


    Alger hiss trial
    Alger Hiss Trial anti-sedition Smith Act

    • State Department official Alger Hiss accused of spying by Whittaker Chambers


    The cold war begins


    Mccarthyism
    McCarthyism is found to have lied under oath

    • 1950: Senator Joseph McCarthy makes his “Wheeling Declaration”

      • He has the names of 200 known communists in the federal government



    The rosenbergs
    The Rosenbergs is found to have lied under oath

    • 1951: Julius & Ethel Rosenberg found guilty of espionage for giving atomic secrets to Russians

    • 1953: Executed


    The cold war begins

    The Rosenbergs is found to have lied under oath


    The h bomb
    The H-Bomb is found to have lied under oath

    • 1952: 1st Hydrogen Bomb (fusion) tested successfully in the South Pacific

    • 1953: Russians explode their H-bomb & the arms race is on


    The korean war 1950 1953

    The Korean War is found to have lied under oath(1950-1953)


    Korea divided
    Korea Divided is found to have lied under oath



    The cold war begins


    The cold war begins

    Korean War excluding Korea [1950-1953]


    The cold war begins


    The cold war begins


    The cold war begins

    The Forgotten War excluding Korea


    The forgotten war
    The Forgotten War excluding Korea

    • UN allows invasion of North

    • November: Chinese troops cross the Yalu river & push UN troops south of the 38th parallel


    The cold war begins

    The Shifting Map of Korea excluding Korea [1950-1953]


    The cold war begins


    The cold war begins


    Truce negotiations
    Truce Negotiations excluding Korea

    • July 1951: War breaks down into stalemate

    • Discussions over a truce breakdown about exchange of prisoners – war continues


    Twenty second amendment
    Twenty-Second Amendment excluding Korea

    • 1951: Amendment passes saying no person shall be allowed to be president more than twice

    • Truman excluded


    Election of 1952
    Election of 1952 excluding Korea

    • Democrats: hampered by Korea, scandals, & Red Scare nominate Adlai Stevenson


    I like ike
    I Like Ike excluding Korea

    • Republican isolationists sought to nominate Robert Taft

    • Dwight Eisenhower wins nomination on first ballot


    The cold war begins


    Nixon slush fund
    Nixon Slush Fund nominee

    • Reports claim Nixon had a secret campaign fund for his personal use

    • Nixon makes “Checkers Speech” in reaction to slush fund allegations



    The cold war begins


    War ends
    War Ends Korea to end the war

    • Ike goes to Korea & 7 months later, after the threat of a nuclear strike, the war in Korea ends in a shaky armistice


    The cold war begins


    Communist expansion a chronology of events

    Soviet Union Korea to end the war1918

    X

    Berlin Blockade 1947-8

    Eastern Europe1946

    China1949

    Communist ExpansionA Chronology of Events

    X

    Korean War1950 to 1953

    CONTAINMENT

    Marshall PlanBerlin AirliftNATOKorean War


    Quickwrite
    Quickwrite Korea to end the war

    Analyze the successes and failures of the Cold War policy of containment as it developed in TWO of the following areas from 1945-1975.

    • Europe

    • East and Southeast Asia

    • Middle East

    • Latin America


    Quickwrite1
    Quickwrite Korea to end the war

    Compare and contrast American foreign policies after WWI (1918-1928) and WWII (1945-1950).