Nara Period Review: • Name the religion founded in Japan. • This religion believes that everything has ___________. Preview: 3. Name the large empire closest to Japan. 4. Name the moral, belief system popular founded in China. 5. Name a religion that was popular in China for a while (not the same answer as #4 above).
The Mirror Game • Raise right hand • Raise left hand • Touch right ear • Touch nose • Raise both hands • Comb hair with right hand • Make imaginary circle with left hand. • Touch left ear • Touch left shoulder • Lift right knee • Touch left ear • Touch chin with right hand • Touch right cheek with left hand
Today’s Topic • Just like the song at the beginning of class “Just Like Me,” and the Mirror Game; we will be studying a time period in Japan when they were modeling themselves after China. • Time period is called the “Nara Period”
Textbook and Comp Book • Textbook page 222 • Comp Book Title: “The Nara Period and Buddhism” • Read “Prince Shotoku” and “The Nara Period” pg 223 • Notes:
Japan’s History Prior to 7th century (600s) Japan was ruled by individual clans. The clan leader practiced Shinto to protect clan.
The Nara Period: Adapting Chinese Ideas • Nara period – A time period in Japan from 700-794 heavily influenced by Chinese civilization and culture. Capital city was located in Nara. The capital city of Nara. Designed just like China’s capital city.
Cultural Diffusion Reaches Japan Buddhism Buddhism Buddhism Buddhism
Cultural Diffusion Reaches Japan Buddhism Buddhism Confucianism Buddhism Buddhism
Writing: Applying Chinese Characters to Japanese • Writing is borrowed from China. • Ancient Japanese is not a written language. • Japan learns to write in Chinese characters. • Then, Japanese adapt Chinese writing to their own language. • Kanji, or ‘Chinese writing’. Characters based on Chinese characters. • Difficult to write some Japanese words and ideas in kanji. • Kana, or ‘borrowed letters’. Kana represent syllables in Japanese. • Kana lets people spell out Japanese words in writing.
Literature: Adapting Chinese Poetic Forms • Earliest written Japanese literature from 7th and 8th centuries. • Poets write in Japanese, using Chinese characters. • Develop a form of poetry called a tanka, based on songs from Japan’s oral tradition. • 31 syllables • Five lines of 5, 7, 5, 7, 7 syllables. A tanka by Fujiwara no Shunzei 1114 – 1204 To one who rarely comes here The wind through the pines Sounds sad at night time. Does she hear it always Beneath the moss?
Sculpture • Earliest Japanese sculptures are clay, probably meant to accompany or protect the dead. • Buddhist sculpture: • First Buddhist sculptures in Japan made by Chinese and Korean craftsmen. • Japanese craftsmen learn technique from them, and develop their own style. • Wood is commonly used for sculpture in Japan.
Architecture • Buddhists also bring new styles of architecture to Japan. • Japanese architects borrow the pagoda style from China. • Shrines and temples are built all over Japan. • Pagodas have 3, 5, 7 or 9 layers of roof. • Shinto shrines are also built in this style.
Music: Adopting New Music and Instruments • Native Japanese music is chanted, using just a few notes. • War songs • Folk songs • Shinto prayers • Later on, the Japanese began to import musical styles and instruments from China. These included: • Gagaku, a kind of music popular at the Chinese court. • The sheng, which the Japanese call a sho. This is a type of mouth organ made of bamboo sections. It is supposed to sound like the call of a phoenix.
China’s influence in the Nara Period China China’s culture in Japan • All powerful emperor • Confucianism • Buddhism • Writing • Architecture • Poetry • Musical Styles and instruments • All powerful emperor • Confucianism • Buddhism + Shinto • Writing • Architecture • Poetry • Musical Styles and instruments • Buddhism + Shinto
Two Religions Coexist • Buddhism does not replace Shinto. • Instead, the two religions both continue, and even blend with each other. • Each religion satisfies different needs for worshippers. • A saying: “Born Shinto, die Buddhist.” • Weddings and birth ceremonies tend to be Shinto. • Funerals tend to be Buddhist.
Buddhism + Shinto • Japanese people practiced both Shinto and Buddhism • Many worshipped at Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples • Each religion met different needs. • Shinto was for their daily life. • Buddhism was for their afterlife. • Shinto rituals in wedding ceremonies, births, etc.. • Buddhist funerals.
Conclusion Japan was influenced by Korea and China because • They are all near each other • they once all had the same rulers • through the Chinese and Koreans fighting on Japanese land
Conclusion The idea of nature being sacred (special or holy) with spirits belongs to which religion? • Buddhism • Hinduism • Islam • Shinto
Conclusion • Which of the following is the traditional religion of Japan? • Shinto • Buddhism • Christianity • Islam
Conclusion • Do you agree with the following sentence and why? Most Japanese practiced both Shinto and Buddhism. • Yes, the Japanese believe that all of their needs can be met by practicing both. • Yes, but only because Shinto does not talk about nature. • No, if you practice Buddhism you cannot practice anything else. • No, Shinto does not allow its followers to practice another religion.
Conclusion • (7.27) A difference between the religions of Buddhism and Shinto is that Shinto: • believes in the afterlife for good behavior • connects man to nature and their homeland • is practiced by martial arts • came to Japan from China
Conclusion • (7.29) Which of the following describes Japan during the Nara period? • Japan was heavily influenced by China: an all powerful emperor, officials were appointed by the emperor to help him govern smaller districts • Japan was ruled by shoguns and samurais protected the nobles and fought for more land. • Mongols captured Japan during the Nara period and ruled for almost 90 years.