Force Projection Symposium IV 8 May 2003 “Deploying the Objective Force” LTG Chuck Mahan United States ArmyDeputy Chief of Staff , G-4
Given our current operations, what force projection challenges did we face, what lessons did we learn, and what can we do better?
Transporting soldiers and equipment to and from Iraq will run $7.1 billion. On any given day, more than 120 U.S. ships packed with supplies are on the seas…. The United States has sent more than 145 million pounds of cargo and supplies to the Persian Gulf by plane since January. An additional 1.1 billion pounds have arrived by sea. Renae Merle, “Fighting, In Dollars And Cents”, Washington Post, 12 April 2003
ACCESSIBILITY CHALLENGE Northern ports (Turkey) lacked depth, which required smaller, slower, shallower draft ships CHALLENGE “Anti-access” implied “hostile” environment, must also consider diplomatic and bureaucratic “anti-access” ISB / TSV • DISCUSSION • 12 LMSRs to move 101st AA Division with enablers vs. 29 “Cape class” ships to move 4ID and its enablers • Change in ports required change in plan and review of priorities (what equipment, supplies were needed most) • Requirement for customs / convoy clearances and overflight permission ITV Theater Support Vessel
DEPORD PROCESS – TPFDD* FLOW CHALLENGE Incremental approval of deployment orders and port accessibility issues resulted in changes to TPFDD flow DISAGGREGATION OF TPFDD • Movement of personnel through mobilization sites • Challenge in processing soldiers / DA civilians / contractors at CONUS Replacement Center (CRC) and preparing for onward movement • Maintenance of unit integrity (combat loading) • Enabling units arriving after combat units • Challenge in matching arriving equipment with mobilizing / arriving soldiers *TPFDD – Time Phased Force Deployment Document
ARNG AC USAR UNITS AUTH 607 51,989 26.5% AC 580 57,594 29% ARNG 1078 87,385 44.5% USAR 2265 196,968 100.0% TOTAL RELIANCE ON THE RESERVE COMPONENT CHALLENGE Over 70% of all EAD CSS is in Reserve Component • DISCUSSION • RC (particularly theater-level logistics) must be mobilized early • RC OPTEMPO (what can be sustained? – emerging policy is one 270-day deployment / 60 months) • SecDef directed “Reserve Component Comprehensive Review” intended to reduce reliance on RC early in operations (first Major Combat Operation (MCO) totally active component??) * Source: SAMAS AUG 02 Master Force File
Richard Lewis, Associated Press “I’m certain that when the history of this campaign is written that people will look at this move that the land forces have made in this amount of time as being not only a great military accomplishment, but an incredible logistics accomplishment.” LTG John Abizaid Deputy Commander (Forward) Combined Forces Command, CENTCOM 31 March 2003
There are five complementary and necessary strategies for effectively deploying and sustaining the Objective Force…. • Deployment capabilities • Forward positioning • Distribution-based logistics • Demand reduction • “Spartan” support
DEPLOYMENT CAPABILITIES Better Processes, Lift Capacity, and Infrastructure Improvements Will Increase Capabilities Radio Frequency Tag CONSIDERATIONS Movement Tracking System TC-AIMS II • Deployment process improvement (e.g., TC-AIMS II, Movement Tracking System, In-transit Visibility, Logistics Common Operating Picture) • Increase lift capacity through increased numbers of legacy lift systems and development of new systems • Infrastructure improvement (e.g., improved port throughput)
FORWARD POSITIONING • Pre-positioning of equipment • Materiel (composition of stocks) • Facilities (humidity-controlled warehouses, vessels) • Location (adjacent to strategic transportation nodes) • Permanent forward basing of units’ equipment (with rotating units) • First to Fight equipment
DISTRIBUTION-BASED LOGISTICS Reduces Footprint, But Introduces New Sustainment Flow Requirements • Distribution-based logistics reliant on reach • Limited days of supply upon initial deployment • Limited carrying/storage capacity – cargo and fuel trucks • Bulk water and bulk fuel must immediately come from reach • Reduced patient holding capacity • Sustainment flow requirements • Configured loads • Must establish immediate sustainment flow, concurrent with deployment • Sustainment flow must be frequent and consistent • Aerial sustainment as required by METT-TC • Broad, shallow ASL with rapid replenishment Source: CASCOM Rock Drill
DEMAND REDUCTION • Platform efficiency • More efficient platforms through new technologies (e.g., hybrid electric engines, embedded diagnostics / prognostics) • More efficient CSS equipment (e.g., organic upload / download capability, No RTCH outside of APOD / SPOD) • Force efficiency • More efficient forces through combat multipliers (e.g., throughput without re-configuration) • More efficient forces through commonality (e.g., one common chassis) • Personnel efficiency (e.g., built in diagnostics) Improved treatment of sustainment in requirements development and acquisition
SPARTAN SUPPORT Minimizes Initial and Forward Requirements-Only What Must Be With a Force Every Day Will Be Organic to a Force • Use augmentation or reach for: • Infrequently needed capabilities (e.g., POW evacuation) • Tasks that can be deferred or scheduled outside of combat periods (e.g., scheduled vehicle services) • Capabilities that can be foregone for short periods of time (e.g., hot food) • Accept increased risk to reduce resources (e.g., refuel every other day instead of topping off each day)
Today’s requirements compared to our force projection capability….. This will not change without an integrated approach to our force projection strategies.
Return Address LTG Charles S. Mahan, Jr. HQDA DCS, G-4 ATTN: DALO-ZA, Suite 1E394 500 Army Pentagon Washington, DC 20310-0500 SEND ME YOUR CARDS AND LETTERS Phone: (703) 695- 4102 (DSN 225) Email: email@example.com or Charles.Mahan@us.army.mil
THE ARMY AT WAR AND TRANSFORMING