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Social Neuroscience Stereotyping & Prejudice Race & Emotion. Brenda Kopari Jamie Renspe Mind & Body Connection June 8 th , 2007. The Social Neuroscience of Stereotyping and Prejudice Ito et al, 2006. How social category information is perceived?

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Social neuroscience stereotyping prejudice race emotion

Social NeuroscienceStereotyping & PrejudiceRace & Emotion

Brenda Kopari

Jamie Renspe

Mind & Body Connection

June 8th, 2007


The social neuroscience of stereotyping and prejudice ito et al 2006
The Social Neuroscience of Stereotyping and PrejudiceIto et al, 2006

  • How social category information is perceived?

  • How this information, in conjunction with stereotypes, influences behavior?


Stereotyping
Stereotyping

  • If we categorize an individual as belonging to a particular social group, stereotypical beliefs and prejudicial reactions associated with the entire group can become activated

    • This information can influence how we respond to an individual


Is stereotype activation decreased at lower levels of analysis
Is stereotype activation decreased at lower levels of analysis?

  • Encoding of category membership is attenuated; blocking activation of stereotypes and prejudice

  • Category membership is encoded, but activation of stereotypes and prejudice is attenuated

  • Category membership is encoded and stereotypes and prejudice are activated, but their application is attenuated


Prior methods of research
Prior methods of research analysis?

  • Participants viewed pictures of black and white males and females

    • Identify as introverted or extroverted

    • Indicated what vegetables the people in the pictures would like


Findings of prior research
Findings of Prior Research analysis?

  • Increasing the visual complexity slowed down the process of racial and gender stereotyping

    • Directing participants’ attention to other social cues does not inhibit racial and gender perceptions


Current study part i
Current Study analysis?Part I

  • How does race influence the detection of weapons in a first person shooter game?

    • Participants viewed white or black men holding a gun or an insignificant object

      • Told to shoot armed targets and not shoot unarmed targets


Findings
Findings analysis?

  • Consistent bias against blacks

    • More accurate and faster in shooting armed blacks compared to armed whites

    • Faster and more accurate in not shooting unarmed whites compared to unarmed blacks

    • Unarmed blacks were more likely to be erroneously shot than unarmed whites


Findings continued
Findings Continued analysis?

  • Shooting a person who is not associated with violence (white) generated the greatest conflict

  • Shooting someone stereotypically associated with violence (black) was not more problematic than not shooting him

    • Shooting a black person did not create conflict regardless of their arms



Findings1
Findings study

  • Participants were faster to shoot armed blacks compared to armed whites

  • They were faster to NOT shoot unarmed whites compared to unarmed blacks


Discussion questions
Discussion Questions study

  • Out of the three white people how many had guns?

  • Out of the two black people how many had guns?

  • Do you think stereotyping and prejudice are of your own free will?

    • Automatic response?


Race emotion
Race & Emotion study

  • To understand others successfully you need to recognize how they feel

    • Tone of voice

    • Facial expressions


Racial or cultural experience
Racial or Cultural Experience study

  • Social experience can moderate how well one can recognize emotions

    • Differences are possibly why difficulties arise during interracial interactions


Origins of emotion recognition
Origins of Emotion Recognition study

  • Evidence that being able to express and recognize emotions in peoples faces has evolutionary roots, it is shared across cultures, and has dedicated neural machinery


Origins of emotion recognition1
Origins of Emotion Recognition study

  • Innate human ability to express and recognize emotions in a person’s face

    • Know if positive or negative expression

    • Innate

      • For example, children who are blind and deaf still communicate their emotions with similar facial expressions as other children (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1970)

      • Also, people from other cultures can recognize facial expressions at above chance levels of accuracy (Ekman, 1992)


Role of brain the limbic system
Role of Brain: studyThe Limbic System

  • Amygdala

    • Perception, detection and recognition of fearful facial expressions

  • Medial Frontal Gyri

    • Recognizing angry expressions

  • Basal Ganglia

    • Engaged during recognition of happy expressions


Role of brain
Role of Brain study

  • How do these regions of the brain interact during emotion recognition?

    • Neural processes associated with recognition of emotions occur early

      • For example, perceiving fear in facial expressions modulates neural responses in frontocentral regions at about 120msec (Eimer & Holmes, 2002)


Social experience influences the process of emotion recognition
Social Experience Influences the Process of Emotion Recognition

  • Face

    • Social information like age, gender and race influence how you see yourself and how others see you

      • Again, you can recognize emotions in faces from all cultures fairly accurately, but you recognize emotions most accurately with members of the same cultural group

        • Possibly because different levels of familiarity

          • know own culture more


Race and the brain previous research
Race and the Brain RecognitionPrevious Research

  • Examine neutral (no emotion) faces of different races

  • Both race and emotion likely to influence neural and behavioral responses

  • N. Ambady et al. conducted fMRIs and ERPs

    • Showed the impact of race on emotional processing

    • Influence of emotional expression on evaluation of in-group and out-group members


Prior research does race affect brain processes during emotion recognition
Prior Research RecognitionDoes race affect brain processes during emotion recognition?

  • Chiao et al. (2004)

    • fMRI in 8 Caucasians (4 men, 4 women)

    • Explicitly identified fear, anger and neutral expressions in faces of Caucasians, Asian-Americans and African Americans (both men and women)

    • Each facial expression shown for 750 msec

    • Responded within 2500 msec

    • Prediction: Would recognize all expressions, but most accurate at recognizing faces of the same race


Findings2
Findings Recognition

  • All expressions recognized at better than chance levels

  • Caucasians recognized neutral faces better than fearful and angry faces

    • Also better at recognizing emotions (fear and anger) in Caucasian and Asian Americans more so than African Americans

  • Neural regions specifically involved in fear and anger show differences in signal change depending on the race of the person expressing the emotion


Findings3
Findings Recognition

  • Neuroimaging

    • Greater amygdala activity in response to Caucasian and Asian American faces

    • Caucasian expressions of anger elicited increased signal change in medial front cortex


Hypothesis
Hypothesis Recognition

  • Race of facial target would influence basic structural face processing about 170 msec after stimulus onset

    • Can observe this in the amplitude of the Vertex Positive Potential (VPP)

  • Emotional expression being processed would affect the extent to which race influenced neural processing

    • Self-report exposure to races

    • Most exposure to Caucasians

    • Least to African Americans


Findings4
Findings Recognition

  • Detected angry expressions most accurately in African Americans and Caucasians

  • Recognized fear most accurately in Caucasians

  • Neutral faces recognized equally across the races


Findings continued1
Findings continued Recognition

  • VPP amplitude sensitive to race and emotion of face

    • Greater for African American faces regardless of emotion being expressed

  • Neuroimaging and ERP data suggest that race affects brain processes involved in recognizing fear and anger

    • Regions important in recognition of fear and anger show modulation of signal change based on the race of expressor

    • Not all out-group faces processed alike

      • Why?


Social neuroscience stereotyping prejudice race emotion


Studied
Studied influences processing of different out-group members at not only the behavioral but also the physiological level

  • Cortical and behavioral responses of high and low prejudiced individuals to in-group and out-group emotional stimuli

  • Employed an active evaluation task

    • Participants were asked to make a socially relevant judgment regarding in-group and out-group members

    • Do I want to work with this person?


Findings5
Findings influences processing of different out-group members at not only the behavioral but also the physiological level

  • High and low prejudiced individuals are differently influenced by the affective relevance of in-group and out-group members

    • Affective nature of target stimuli may be especially salient for low prejudiced individuals

      • Low prejudiced individuals showed an increased contingent negative variation (CNV) to angry out-group stimuli and in anticipation of angry faces

  • Supports idea that individuals monitor automatic reactions to negative stereotypes elicited by out-group stimuli


High prejudice groups
High Prejudice Groups influences processing of different out-group members at not only the behavioral but also the physiological level

  • Showed decrease in CNV in anticipation of angry Black targets compared with all other targets

  • Showed enhanced CNV in anticipation of happy White faces

    • Extra effort to make individuating responses when required to evaluate in-group stimuli

  • Supports ideas that those high in prejudice have less of a motivation or need to monitor prejudice responses

    • Absence of effort to suppress prejudice


Findings6
Findings influences processing of different out-group members at not only the behavioral but also the physiological level

  • CNV amplitudes illustrate low prejudiced individuals show greater cortical activity to angry Black targets

  • Evidence raced based information may trigger a societally constrained conceptual representation of race but also the manifestation of prejudice depends on how individuals process this information


Findings7
Findings influences processing of different out-group members at not only the behavioral but also the physiological level

  • Facial expressions of emotion affect both neural and behavioral responses to in-group and out-group faces


Discussion
Discussion influences processing of different out-group members at not only the behavioral but also the physiological level

  • What emotions are these people portraying?

    • Would you want to work with this person?


Discussion1
Discussion influences processing of different out-group members at not only the behavioral but also the physiological level

  • Can you control your reactions to different faces and races?

  • Even though there are equal opportunity employers, do you think that the people hiring can suppress their prejudices?

    • High versus Low Prejudiced People