Secure and Reliable Multicast Video Distribution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Secure and Reliable Multicast Video Distribution

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  1. Secure and Reliable MulticastVideo Distribution Team 4 Active Networks Demonstrations 8 December 2000

  2. AER Reliable Multicast Maude UMass/TASC SRI/Stanford CANEs EE GT/UKy Security Guardian UIUC Bowman NodeOS Barman Barman NISTNet WAN Emulator Wash U code server Team Four Composition

  3. Team Objectives • Demonstrate composition of active network services • including components developed independently • Demonstrate benefits of choosing/combining functional elements in many dimensions: • placement of functions at strategic points in topology • real multicast data transport services • trust management for multicast routing • verification of correctness, compositionality

  4. Demo Overview • Application: MPEG 2 video multicast • To be demonstrated: • Benefits of active processing in a real application: (almost) side-by-side comparison of video quality with and without active error recovery • Protocol Correctness: Formal methods have found errors in key protocols and algorithms • Performance: Active processing of MPEG frames at 2.74 Mbps • Security: Modification and enforcement of security policy; resistance to denial-of-service attacks • Integration: independently-developed functionalities incorporated into CANEs EE and Bowman NodeOS

  5. AER/NCA Send Applications (Sun Ultra 5s/Solaris) NIST Net WAN Emulators (200 MHz Pentium Pros/LINUX) CANEs Active Node (Dual Processor Sun Ultra 2/Solaris) NIST Net WAN Emulator (733 MHz Pentium III/LINUX) CANEs Active Node (Dual Processor Sun Ultra 2/Solaris) AER/NCA Receive Apps (Windows NT with HW MPEG2 Decoders) Team 4 Demonstration Configuration

  6. Presentation Outline • Overview (Ken Calvert) • Team introduction, application, demo topology • Highlight 1: Active Error Recovery (Steve Zabele) • Protocol overview, error recovery modes • Highlight 2: Formal Analysis (Jose Meseguer) • Errors identified using Maude • Highlight 3: Composition using CANEs (Ellen Zegura) • CANEs/Bowman operation • Highlight 4: Security (Roy Campbell) • Enforcement scenarios, Anti-DOS check • Wrapup (Ken Calvert)

  7. Highlight 1: Active Reliable Multicast AER Reliable Multicast Maude UMass/TASC CANEs EE Security Guardian Bowman NodeOS Barman

  8. Active Multicast Repair Services Active Packet Traditional Error Recovery (TCP) Active Error Recovery (AER) Sender Conventional Routers Retransmitted message Active Routers Active Node Link causing loss of original message Active Packet ‘ Lost message retransmission request Loss detected by nearest router downstream from loss Message retransmitted by nearest router upstream from loss Receiver Repair latency is a complete round trip time Repair latency much less than one round trip • Base premise: • Active Networking can significantly improve latency, efficiency, and scalability of transport protocols

  9. Sender Repair Servers Routers Receivers AER/NCA AER Repair Servers (RSs) • Co-located with routers AER loss handling: • Rcvrs and RSs unicast NAKs • RSs subcast NAKs one level downstream • subcast repairs, NAK supression NCA • Estimating worst receiver • TCP friendliness • Decoupled from AER

  10. Demo Performance Indicators Total AER Packets Received Short-term average “goodput” in packets/sec Short-term average of error recovery ratio -> dropped packets recovered / dropped packets detected Short-term average delay in packet recovery

  11. AER Demo: Semi-reliable Multicast Multicast MPEG-2 Video Client Multicast MPEG-2 Video Client Video Server (Multicast) Emulated bottleneck link With repair servers inactive, dropped packets not repaired before playout time: quality suffers With repair servers active, dropped packet repaired before playout time: quality improved

  12. Highlight 2: Maude Analysis of AER/NCA Reliable Multicast Maude SRI/Stanford CANEs EE Security Guardian Bowman NodeOS Barman

  13. Problem Description • Have: • Suite of sophisticated AN-based protocol components collectively implementing a reliable multicast capability • Existing design document in UML-like use cases • Wanted: • Formal executable model for validation and analysis • Modeling challenges: • Time-sensitive behavior • Resource-sensitive behavior • Both correctness and performance as critical metrics • Composability adds a new dimension

  14. Early Observations • Extant PANAMA protocol components specified as Use Cases • Maude input specification (much!) closer to state-transition methodology • State-transition methodology far clearer, much closer to what is needed for protocol specification, implementation, debugging • Maude input specification a strong, interesting candidate for a protocol specification language

  15. Technical Breakthroughs Using Maude • Incorporation of explicit time modeling and analysis support within formal framework • Incorporation of explicit resource modeling and analysis support within formal framework • Incorporation of performance as well as correctness assessment capabilities complementing time and resource mechanisms • Support for explicit modeling and assessment of both individual protocol components and aggregate protocol compositions

  16. The Real-Time Maude Tool • Supports distributed object-oriented formal of network protocols by rewrite rules of the form S S’ if cond S S’ in time t if cond • Type 1 rules indicate instantaneous transitions from state S to state S’ • Type 2 rules indicate transitions in time t

  17. The Real-Time Maude Tool - II • Real-Time Maude specifications are executable, and can be used to find errors in specifications by: • symbolic simulation • model checking • Formal specifications in Real-Time Maude provide a mathematical model for which important properties can be subjected to theorem proving.

  18. Configuration for analysis sender a c b rcvr d e rcvr g f rcvr rcvr

  19. Analysis of the Repair ServiceComponent -- Setup • A sender application and receiver applications were added to the basic configuration. • The sender has 21 packets to multicast • The system should reach a state in which each receiver has seen all 21 packets.

  20. Analysis of the Repair Service Component -- Result1 • Using symbolic simulation a deadlock is uncovered Maude> ( rew- [3000] Rstate . ) result ClockedSystem: {ERROR} in time 17841

  21. Analysis of the Error State • Inspection of the rules allowed determination of: • the rule introducing the error state -- bound on NAK count exceeded • Examining intermediate states allowed determination of: • the use cases causing the faulty behavior -- repair server has dropped the repair packet and lost ability to recover it

  22. Analysis of the NOM Component: Setup • The desired property is that if there is a nominee, then some receiver has its nominee flag set to True . • This is important because only a receiver with nominee flag True acknowledges data packets. Unacknowledged data packets may lead to rate control problems

  23. Analysis of the NOM Component: Result • Using model-checking we find a state in which the sender has assigned a nominee but no receiver has a True nominee flag. Maude> ... result ClockedSystem: { <‘e:NOMreceiverAlone|isNomiee:false,...> <‘a:NOMreceiverAlone|csmNomiee:’e,...> ...} in time 19504

  24. Value Added • Found mistakes and omissions in original use cases, while developing the Maude specification • Found significant design problems/errors through execution and analysis of the Maude specification* • Ability to validate subprotocols in isolation as well as in combination: • Approach easily extensible to new designs * Maude was able to identify all protocol errors uncovered a priori through more extensive simulation and testing (ns, ABONE, CANEs) (and more). Errors were not revealed to Maude team until after the analysis was completed.

  25. Highlight 3: CANEs/Bowman Reliable Multicast Maude CANEs EE GT/UKy Security Guardian Bowman NodeOS Barman

  26. Bowman NodeOS admin flows virtual topos signaling code fetch channels state-store a-flows Bowman security timers Host OS

  27. CANEs EE model generic processing function predefined slots customizing code outgoing channels incoming channels

  28. Walkthrough receiver0 source0 R0 S0 activenode1 activenode0 A0 A1 WAN emulators R1 S1 receiver1 source1

  29. Step 1: Configure virtual topos R0 virtual topos S0 A0 A1 cockpit R1 management station S1 one unicast, bidirectional topology multiple unidirectional multicast topologies (e.g., (S1,{R0,R1})

  30. Step 2: Send signaling messages R0 signaling S0 A0 A1 R1 S1 management station

  31. Step 2a: Guard signaling calls signaling a-flow (with “undo” capabilities) 1:sg_hwtInit(certificate,callParams) Security Guardian 2:hwtInit(callParams) Bowman

  32. Step 2b: Load code signaling flow WU gateway code fetch flow 4:0xabcd 3:foo.c 1:wucf:://foo.c 5:foo.c WU code server 2:foo.c SG code fetch module Bowman

  33. Step 2c: Instantiate a-flows generic forwarding (mcast) eight a-flows DATA lookuproute: ip_lookup postprocess cache_put CANEs data pkt postproc

  34. Step 3: Transmit data control pkts/sec timers set/sec SPM DATA timers cancelled/sec data pkts/sec

  35. Step 4: Check authorization generic forwarding (mcast) preprocess source path msg flow (SPM) authorize CANEs Security Guardian

  36. Highlight 4: Security Policy Management Reliable Multicast Maude CANEs EE Security Guardian UIUC Bowman NodeOS Barman

  37. Seraphim Security Guardian BOWMAN/CANES: Active Security for Active Networks University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

  38. Demo-A0 knows A1 Cert Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [,] Client0 Client

  39. Demo- Video Flow Starts Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [,] Client0 Client

  40. Demo- Policy Installed Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [P1s, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [,] Client0 Client

  41. Demo- Video Flows Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [P1s, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [,] Client0 Client

  42. Demo- Add Policy & Client Cert Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [P1s, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [P1s, C0] Client0 Client

  43. Demo- Video to Client Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [P1s, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [P1s, C0] Client0 Client

  44. Demo- Revocation Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [P1s, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [P1s, C0] Client0 Client

  45. Demo- Change Policy ACL Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [P1s, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [P2s, C0] Client0 Client

  46. Demo- Invalid Authorization Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [P1s, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [P2s, C0] Client0 Client

  47. Demo- Stops Video Server Server Wan Em Wan Em Active Router 0 [P1s, A1] Wan Em Active Router 1 [P2s, C0] Client0 Client

  48. Threat and Response Model • Malicious attacks against active packets, links, nodes, EEs, hosts, security service • Unauthorized access to NodeOS resources including bandwidth • Attacks against the confidentiality, privacy and integrity of communication • Distributed Denial of Service

  49. Seraphim Features • Access Control • NodeOS resources • EEs • Active Packet Contents using Security Guardian with Dynamic Policy and Active Capability • Security NodeOS API (PAM,GAA,GSS) • QoS independent Prevention of DoS • Composable/Pluggable Active Security • Demonstrable on ANTS, CANES, Flux

  50. Access Control • All accesses to NodeOS resources go through the Security Guardian • Access control policies are written in the context of Policy Framework • Active Capability is used as the carrier of the access control policy