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Integrated Power Converters for high efficiency RF Systems By: Aaron Pereira Supervisor: Prof. Graham Town & Prof Neil Weste Department of Electronic Engineering Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.
Outline • Introduction • Background • Solution • Gallium Nitride Material & Devices • PA + High Efficiency Modulator • Triquint 0.25u process & circuits designed • Further Work • Questions
Introduction MQ University Department of Electronics: ARC Linkage Grant • Integrated Power converters for renewable energy systems • 100MHz Envelope tracking system using GaN process for base station applications • Using Triquint existing 0.25u GaN process, to design a high frequency, high efficiency modulator to be integrated into a Power Amplifier (HEPA) module for base stations applications.
Background RF Power Efficiency
Q I Quest for Power, Linearity & Efficiency Actual Size Edge Constellation: 3pi/8, rotated 8-PSK Schematic of PA Stauth, Sanders, "Power supply rejection for RF amplifiers," (RFIC) Symposium, June 2006 Popovic,Zoya, “High efficiency microwave PA with dynamic power supplies”, ECEN 5014, Spring 2009, University of Colorado, Boulder
Amplifier Classes- A, AB,B, C, D,E,F Conduction Angle, Efficiency Niehenke,E, “GaN Power Amplifiers” Niehenke Consulting
Non Linear PA v Linear PA’sCan’t do amplitude modulation Can- but highly inefficient Stauth, Sanders, "Power supply rejection for RF amplifiers," (RFIC) Symposium, June 2006
Solution- Research Objective • HPA +Dynamic power supply MMIC • Use Triquint Semiconductor 0.25u GaN Process to fabricate a monolithic solution. MMIC Photo : Courtesy if Stephen Diebold, Karlshue Institute of Technology
Gallium Nitride – Materials & DevicesRF & Power Electronics
Properties of GaN Niehenke,E, “GaN Power Amplifiers” Niehenke Consulting
Anomalous Behaviour - Traps Development of virtual gates wrecks havoc in device performance Ventury, R. “PhD Thesis defence”, UCSB.
Traps affecting FET performance RF Dispersion Kink effects IDS v VDS Shift in Threshold VTH Albahrani,S.A , “ Characterization of Trapping in Gallium Nitride HEMTs”, PhD Thesis, Macquarie University, Australia 2011
Device Engineering-Field Plates & Passivation Niehenke,E, “GaN Power Amplifiers” Niehenke Consulting
PA + High Efficiency Modulator Design Options Technology FCC regulations Cost Modulation Schemes
Demonstration of Class E amplifier Electrodeless Fluorescent Lamps 13.56 MHz Class E Amplifier 620V/ 1.4 A GaN HEMT – 90% at 9W Output Power Demonstration of Resonant Inverter Circuit for Electrodeless Fluorescent Lamps Using High Voltage GaN-HEMT Wataru Saito*, Tomokazu Domon**, Ichiro Omura*, Tomohiro Nitta*, Yorito Kakiuchi*, Kunio Tsuda*** and Masakazu Yamaguchi* * Semiconductor Company, Toshiba Corp **Toshiba Business and Life Service ***R&D Center, Toshiba Corp 1 Komukai Toshiba-cho, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 212-8583, Japan Phone: +81-44-549-2603, FAX: +81-44-549-2883, e-mail: email@example.com
DC-DC Converter ArchitectureUsing switching PAs DC-DC Converter fabricated using FET’s non-optimized for power conversion Popovic,Zoya, “High efficiency microwave PA with dynamic power supplies”, ECEN 5014, Spring 2009, University of Colorado, Boulder
PA and Modulator Integration Challenges – Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSSR) FCC has strict regulations regarding this. Selection of filters and switching frequencies critical Stauth, Sanders, "Power supply rejection for RF amplifiers," (RFIC) Symposium, June 2006
Circuits Designed-MMIC LayoutRing Oscillators, Inverters, Tuned Amplifiers
Further Work • Switching PA’s E/F • Class AB PA (16 Weeks) • Filters for noise rejection (8 Weeks) • Integration (20-24 Weeks) • Thermal Issues (16 Weeks) • Testing (14 Weeks)