Direct Observation. Describe methods and goals of direct observation Carry out an unstructured observation on a segment of video, writing up notes, with as little analysis as possible. Direct Observations. Participant Observation Unstructured Direct Observation Structured Observation.
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participant & observer
participating observer (usual role for social research), passive
observing participant, active
attend ceremonies (funerals, seasonal festive events)
1 Can collect sensitive data, impossible as a stranger
2. Reduces reactivity, get higher validity of data
3. Helps formulate questions, as you understand culture better
(supervision in health post workers)
4. Helps understand meanings, can make strong statements about cultural data you have collected
(telling mothers to boil water)
5. Basis for general understanding of how social organization works
(emic concept of poverty absent)
1. Choose easy site over a difficult one, if all else is the same
2. Bring documentation about yourself and project
3. Arrange to be introduced, have a contact
4. Prepare answers to questions expected to be asked
What are you doing here?
What are your qualifications?
Why do you want to do this?
Who sent you?
Who is paying you?
What good to us is the work that you do?
Why are you working with the other group and not us?
How many children do you have?
Is it true about American women that they.......?
How much money do you make?
What does your camera cost?
Do you have some medicine?
5. Get to know the physical and social layout of the scene
(materials about yourself, pictures)
Language esp. the sounds:
Explicit awareness (facial expressions, body language):
(Newars nose piercings)
Writing skills to expand what you observed
participant or observer:
Record your feelings and reactions to what you observe
Purpose is exploration
Speak in 5 different ways:
Spradley Participant Observation
Descriptive Question Matrix Pg. 82-3
always preceded by unstructured observations
Quantifiable record of behavior(s) or the outcome(s) of behaviors collected by a trained observer through the use of a pre-coded or partly coded data instrument
observer appears at randomly selected places/times and records people’s activities when they are first encountered, recording behaviors in isolation from other behaviors (not part of behavioral stream)
need to make a decision based on observation about the presence or absence of a particular feature or abstract quality, often along some sort of scale, may need judgment
clear definitions essential,
identify reactive/non-reactive behaviors
Case-Control Study in Nepal 78 pairs aged 1-6 (hh with Vit. A Def.)
7 day-long (6a-8p) (blinded) continuous monitoring over 15 months, ≥2 months apart, recording key behaviors, one record per 5 min. (time, location, actor (of behavior), recipient, behavior, food/quantity
Caregiver-child and child care behaviors more important than intra-household food allocation behavior in determining rural Nepali child's risk for xerophthalmia
June-Sept. 1997, Castro District, San Francisco
Two 4-5 hour sessions a week during afternoons and early evenings
Alternating week-end and weed-days to sample youth in neighborhood at different times
"sitting on sidewalks with youth while they were panhandling or selling goods and walking around the site with a youth as they interacted with their peers"
Included being ask to "move along" by police
Led to finding key informant and interviews
Observe segment of video (no sound)
Write continuous monitoring notes
Do not analyze, report what you see
Visual information, not dialogue, or description of etic events, explanations, etc.
Develop a scheme:
Consider what are behaviors, observations, events in the setting that are significant and make up a mnemonic code (discuss with team what elements will be) place in margin
Discussed Session 7