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1914-1918: The World at War. Differing Viewpoints. “Family Feud” “Fall of the Eagles” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”. Causes of the War. 1. The Alliance System. Triple Entente :. Triple Alliance :. Two Armed Camps!. Allied Powers :.

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slide2

Differing Viewpoints

  • “Family Feud”
  • “Fall of the Eagles”
  • “The War to End All Wars”
  • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
slide4

1. The Alliance System

Triple Entente:

Triple Alliance:

slide5

Two Armed Camps!

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

slide6

The Major Players: 1914-17

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II [Rus]

Wilhelm II [Ger]

George V [Br]

Victor Emmanuel II [It]

Enver Pasha[Turkey]

Pres. Poincare [Fr]

Franz Josef [A-H]

slide8

2. Militarism & Arms Race

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

slide14

A few years earlier, Bosnia had been taken over by Austria-Hungary, a move that angered many Bosnians who wanted closer ties to nearby Serbia and other Slavic ethnic groups.

  • On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, made an official visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Austria-Hungary's province of Bosnia. Ferdinand was heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  • On the day of the visit, several terrorists, trained and armed by a Serbian group, waited in the crowd.
slide17

The Assassin:

GavriloPrincip

Early in the day, as the royal couple rode through the city in an open car, a terrorist hurled a bomb at their car. The bomb bounced off the hood and exploded nearby. Unharmed, the couple continued their visit. Another terrorist, Gavrilo Princip, was waiting farther down the route. When the car came into view, Princip fired several shots into the car, killing the royal couple.

slide19

Mobilization

  • Home by Christmas!
  • No major war in 50 years!
  • Nationalism!

It's a long way to Tipperary,

It's a long way to go;

It's a long way to Tipperary,

To the sweetest girl I know!

Goodbye, Piccadilly,

Farewell, Leicester Square,

It's a long, long way to Tipperary,

But my heart's right there!

slide22

Recruits of the Central Powers

A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

Austro-Hungarians

slide37

Spies

  • “Mata Hari”
  • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle
  • German Spy!
slide39

Both the Allies and the Central powers launched propaganda campaigns designed to whip up support for their side. Propaganda is information or rumor spread by a group or government to promote its own cause or ideas or to damage an opposing cause or idea. The information in the propaganda may or may not be accurate. Either way, the intention of propaganda is not to inform, but rather to persuade others to adopt the view or to take the action supported by the propagandist.

slide43

German Poster

Think of Your Children!

slide48

Trench Warfare

“No Man’s Land”

slide49

Verdun – February, 1916

  • German offensive.
  • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
slide50

The Somme – July, 1916

  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
slide62

Fighting in Africa

Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa]

British Sikh Mountain Gunners

slide63

Fighting in Africa

3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

slide64

Fighting in Salonika, Greece

French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916

slide66

Wilson protested that sinking merchant ships without protecting the lives of passengers and crews violated international law. He warned that the United States would hold Germany to "strict accountability" for any American casualties in such attacks.

  • The policy of "strict accountability" was soon put to a test. On May 7, 1915, a U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania without warning. Among the 1,198 dead were 128 Americans.
slide68

February 1917. Britain had gotten hold of a note sent in code by the German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, to the German minister in Mexico. Zimmermann suggested that if the United States entered the war, Mexico and Germany should become allies. Germany would then help Mexico regain "lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona." The Zimmermann note created a sensation in the United States and stirred anti-German feeling across the nation.

slide70

Wilson threatened to break off diplomatic relations with Germany if it did not stop surprise attacks. In an agreement called the Sussex pledge, Germany promised to spare all lives in any future U-boat attacks on merchant ships. But it attached a condition: The United States must force Britain to end its illegal blockade. Wilson accepted the pledge but would not accept the condition.

slide71

The United States Enters the War

  • In 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war. “It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into . . . the most terrible and disastrous of all wars,” he said. “Civilization itself seems to be hanging in the balance.” Library of Congress
  • On April 2, 1917, Wilson spoke to a special session of Congress. He reminded lawmakers of the loss of life caused by German U-boats and how these attacks hurt the nation's ability to trade freely with other countries. Then he turned to his main theme:
  • Neutrality is no longer feasible [practical] . . . where the peace of the world is involved . . . The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty . . . The right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts—for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments.
  • —Woodrow Wilson's War Message, address to Congress, 1917
slide79

The Airplane

“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

slide80

The Flying Aces of World War I

FrancescoBarraco, It.

Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br.

Eddie Rickenbacher, US

Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”]

Rene PaukFonck, Fr.

Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.

slide84

FlameThrowers

GrenadeLaunchers

slide85

Poison Gas

Machine Gun

slide93

1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies

50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

slide94

11 a.m., November 11, 1918

The Armistice is Signed!

slide98

Turkish Genocide Against Armenians

A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!