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Secondary Interventions: Check-in/ Check-out as an Example. Rob Horner, Anne Todd, Amy Kauffman-Campbell, Jessica Swain-Bradway University of Oregon Goals. Define the features and purpose of “secondary interventions”

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secondary interventions check in check out as an example

Secondary Interventions: Check-in/ Check-out as an Example

Rob Horner, Anne Todd,

Amy Kauffman-Campbell, Jessica Swain-Bradway

University of Oregon

  • Define the features and purpose of “secondary interventions”
  • Describe one approach to secondary intervention (Check-in/Check-out)
    • Present research examining this approach
  • Suggest future research directions

Tertiary Prevention:



Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior





Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior


Primary Prevention:


Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings


~80% of Students






~80% of Students

major features of any secondary intervention within swpbs
Major Features of any SecondaryIntervention within SWPBS
  • Intervention is continuously available
  • Rapid access to intervention (72 hr)
  • Implemented across all settings/ times/ people in school
  • Very low effort by teachers
  • Consistent with school-wide expectations
  • Can be adapted based on assessment information
    • Functional Assessment
  • Adequate resources and administrative systems
    • weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a week (FTE)
  • Continuous monitoring for decision-making
behavior education plan check in check out
Behavior Education PlanCheck-in/ Check-out
  • Variations on a long-standing strategy of using daily behavior report card
    • Many variations
bep check in check out cycles

BEP Plan

Weekly BEP Meeting

9 Week Graph Sent

Morning Check-In

Program Update

Daily Teacher Evaluation

Home Check-In


Afternoon Check-out

BEP/Check-in/ Check-out Cycles

HAWK Report

Date ________ Student _______________Teacher___________________

data collection for decision making
Data Collection for Decision-Making
  • Monitor points earned each day
  • Office Discipline Referrals
  • Grades
  • Regular use of data by team
  • Outcome Data

Data Entry

What it will look like in CICO-SWIS

Student Progress Data

core features
Core features
  • Behavioral Priming/ Behavioral Momentum
    • Start school off positively
    • Start each class off positively
  • Student recruitment of contingent adult attention
    • Approach adults (teachers/ family)
  • Predictability
  • Self-management
  • Data-based decision-making
  • Excruciating Efficiency
research support
Research Support
  • Pre schools
    • Sandy Chafouleas, et al 2007
  • Elementary Schools
    • Anne Todd et al in press
    • Sarah Fairbanks et al, 2007
    • Amy Kauffman-Campbell, dissertation
    • Doug Cheney et al, 2006; 2007
    • Leanne Hawken et al. 2007
    • Filter et al., 2007
  • Middle Schools
    • Leanne Hawken et al 2003
    • Rob March et al 2002
  • High Schools
    • Jessica Swain-Bradway, in progress
  • CICO is an Evidence-Based Practice
  • At least 5 peer reviewed studies
  • At least 3 different researchers/settings
  • At least 20 different participants
evaluation of a targeted intervention within a school wide system of behavior support

Evaluation of a Targeted Intervention Within a School-Wide System of Behavior Support

Leanne S. Hawken and Rob Horner

University of Oregon

Journal of Behavioral Education,


The Effects of a Targeted Intervention to Reduce Problem Behavior: Elementary Implementation of Check-in/ Check-out.

Anne Todd, Amy Kauffman, Gwen Meyer & Rob Horner

Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions

research question
Research Question
  • Is there a functional relationship between implementation of Check in/ Check out and (a) reduction in problem behavior and (b) increase in academic engagement?
  • Four elementary age students with moderate levels of problem behavior.
  • Trevor
  • Chad
  • Kendall
  • Eric

BL Check-in/ Check-out

Percentage of Intervals with Problem Behavior

the importance of functional behavioral assessment in targeted interventions

The Importance of Functional Behavioral Assessment in Targeted Interventions

Rob March & Rob Horner, Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,

functional assessment
Functional Assessment
  • Functional assessment interview (FACTS)
  • Defines:
      • Problem behaviors
      • Routines where problems most likely
      • Events that set off problem behaviors
      • Events that maintain problem behaviors
        • Attention (peer/adult)
        • Escape
        • Access to Activities/Items
cico in high school
CICO in High School
  • Jessica Swain-Bradway
    • Problem behavior most likely maintained by escape from academic tasks
    • Adult attention is a less effective reinforcer
    • Add academic support to CICO
    • Tailor adult access to those adults selected by student.
  • Secondary interventions are an important element in school-wide PBS
  • CICO is one approach that has documented success
  • __________________________
  • Future research directions
    • Effects of CICO when done within full SWPBS
    • Fading CICO support to self-management
    • Maintenance of effects
    • Sustainability of intervention