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Understanding HL Learners and Learner Variation in the Classroom. STARTALK Workshop, 2014 NHLRC, UCLA Maria M. Carreira. Warm up Activity. Five core principles. Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

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Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

Understanding HL Learners and Learner Variationin the Classroom

STARTALK Workshop, 2014

NHLRC, UCLA

Maria M. Carreira



Five core principles
Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Core principles cont
Core principles (cont.)

• In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and L2 learners’ complimentary strengths and needs and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up) approaches as needed.

• Design courses and programs that make linguistic and demographic sense. Build maximally homogeneous classes through placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the classroom.


Five core principles1
Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Core principles cont1
Core principles (cont.)

• In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and L2 learners’ complimentary strengths and needs and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up) approaches as needed.

• Design courses and programs that make linguistic and demographic sense. Build maximally homogeneous classes through placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the classroom.



Definitions linguistic studies

Sources of information on learners

Definitions + linguistic studies





Definitions who is a heritage language learner
Definitions:Who is a heritage language learner?

  • Narrow definitions – based on proficiency

  • Broad definitions – based on affiliation


Example of a narrow definition
Example of a narrow definition

“An individual who is raised in a home where a non-English language is spoken, who speaks or merely understands the heritage language, and who is to some degree bilingual in English and the heritage language” (Valdés, 2001, p. 38)


Example of a broad definition
Example of a broad definition

Heritage language learners are individuals who “…have familial or ancestral ties to a particular language and who exert their agency in determining whether or not they are HLLs (heritage language learners) of that HL (heritage language) and HC (heritage culture) (Hornberger and Wang, 2008, p. 27)



Five core principles2
Five core principles definition

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Broad narrow definitions two orientations to hl teaching
Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to HL teaching definition

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Affective needs (broad definition)


Broad narrow definitions two orientations to hl teaching1
Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to HL teaching definition

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Affective needs (broad definition)



In high school I was one of very few Latinos. My friend and I were called the "Mexican kids". This was always funny to me because my Dad's family always told me I was American. In school I was labeled Mexican, but to the Mexicans, I am an American. I am part of each, but not fully accepted by either. In high school, I was considered Mexican because I spoke Spanish but I was considered "Pocho" by my Dad's family because my Spanish was not up to their standard. It's this weird duality in which you are stuck in the middle. Latinos are often told that they are not Americans but also that they are not connected to their heritage. You take pride in both cultures and learn to deal with the rejection. You may never be fully embraced by either side. That's why you seek out other people like yourself. Socializing with people who share a common experience helps you deal with this experience.


Broad narrow definitions two orientations to hl teaching2
Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to HL teaching I were called the "Mexican kids". This was always funny to me because my Dad's family always told me I was American. In school I was labeled Mexican, but to the Mexicans, I am an American. I am part of each, but not fully accepted by either. In high school, I was considered Mexican because I spoke Spanish but I was considered "Pocho" by my Dad's family because my Spanish was not up to their standard. It's this weird duality in which you are stuck in the middle. Latinos are often told that they are not Americans but also that they are not connected to their heritage

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Affective needs (broad definition)


What else

Research I were called the "Mexican kids". This was always funny to me because my Dad's family always told me I was American. In school I was labeled Mexican, but to the Mexicans, I am an American. I am part of each, but not fully accepted by either. In high school, I was considered Mexican because I spoke Spanish but I was considered "Pocho" by my Dad's family because my Spanish was not up to their standard. It's this weird duality in which you are stuck in the middle. Latinos are often told that they are not Americans but also that they are not connected to their heritage

What else?


Typical learner from the nhlrc survey
Typical learner I were called the "Mexican kids". This was always funny to me because my Dad's family always told me I was American. In school I was labeled Mexican, but to the Mexicans, I am an American. I am part of each, but not fully accepted by either. In high school, I was considered Mexican because I spoke Spanish but I was considered "Pocho" by my Dad's family because my Spanish was not up to their standard. It's this weird duality in which you are stuck in the middle. Latinos are often told that they are not Americans but also that they are not connected to their heritage(from the NHLRC survey)

  • Has positive associations with his HL, but also some insecurities;

  • Is a “hyphenated American” (e.g. Arab-American)

  • Wants to learn more about his roots;

  • Wants to connect with other members of his/her community;

  • Enjoys using his/her HL to help others;

  • Would like to take professional advantage of his/her HL skills (only Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese speakers)


The typical learner benefits from his hl along the following dimensions
The typical learner benefits from his HL along the following dimensions

  • Peer relations;

  • Identity development;

  • Family connections;

  • Connection to the community;

  • Horizon expanding experiences;

    (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)


The typical learner benefits from his hl along the following dimensions1
The typical learner benefits from his HL along the following dimensions

  • Peer relations;

  • Identity development;

  • Family connections;

  • Connection to the community;

  • Horizon expanding experiences;

    (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)


Peer relations identity
Peer relations, identity dimensions

• All my life, I've been around people not of my native heritage. To be in a class with people of the same culture as I am feels inviting and accepting. I am now able to speak to my classmates in a different language whilst making myself feel integrated in my culture (Vietnamese)

• During middle school and high school, I felt that my heritage language was not something that I would consider a valuable skill. I only spoke Tagalog when calling relatives back in the Philippines during holidays and special occasions. I only started to take pride in my knowledge of my heritage language after coming to UCSD and joining Filipino clubs as well as enrolling in classes such as Advanced Filipino.


The typical learner benefits from his hl along the following dimensions2
The typical learner benefits from his HL along the following dimensions

  • Peer relations;

  • Identity development;

  • Family connections;

  • Connection to the community;

  • Horizon expanding experiences;

    (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)


Research on connections to hl culture family
Research on connections to HL culture, family dimensions

  • Immigrant children are generally best served by maintaining ties to their culture of origin. This is because immigrant cultures are the repositories of beliefs and attitudes that are conducive to success, such as respect of family and authority, deference for education, and optimism about the future. In addition, by holding on to their expressive culture immigrant children can retain a sense of identity and social connectedness, both of which are crucial to the psychological well-being of children (Suárez-Orozco and Suárez Orozco, 2001)


Family and community carreira kagan 2010
Family and community dimensions(Carreira & Kagan, 2010)

Knowledge of my heritage language has helped me outside of school in that I've been able to communicate and connect with my family and the greater Ethiopian community…Knowledge of my heritage language has also helped me at church in that I have been able to understand parts of and follow along in the sermons (which are partly held in Amharic). Perhaps the most important thing to note about knowing my heritage language is that it has allowed me to communicate with my family (especially because many older relatives, like my grandmothers, speak very little to no English at all).


The typical learner benefits from his hl along the following dimensions3
The typical learner benefits from his HL along the following dimensions

  • Peer relations;

  • Identity development;

  • Family connections;

  • Connection to the community;

  • Horizon expanding experiences;

    (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)


Expanding horizons carreira kagan 2010
Expanding dimensionshorizons(Carreira & Kagan, 2010)

• It has helped me understand people better, and understand the different levels of diversity we have in our university. It has allowed me to understand who I am and how I relate to my school environment. (Chinese)

• It’s made me a more “global citizen”, “a more open-minded person”, “more curious of the other”


Five core principles3
Five core principles dimensions

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Activity time! dimensions

Activity I, pp. 3-4


Latin grandmas horsey or mousey
Latin grandmas: dimensionsHorsey or mousey?


Naming practices how did you get your name
Naming practices: dimensionsHow did you get your name?


Living with spanish names in an english speaking society
Living with Spanish names in an English-speaking society dimensions

  • Two last names or one?

  • Nicknames?

  • Two different first names?

  • Maiden name or husband’s last name?

  • What do you do with difficult to pronounce names? Keep them as they are? Modify them? Drop and substitute?



Broad narrow definitions two orientations to hl teaching3
Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to HL teaching dimensions

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Affective needs (broad definition)


Hl learners linguistic needs are a function of
HL learners dimensions’linguistic needs are a function of

  • The context of learning

  • The timing of learning

  • The amount input

  • The type of input


Hl learner needs and strengths are a function of
HL learner needs and strengths are a function of dimensions

  • The context of learning: primarily, home

    -> informal, home register, perhaps non-standard

  • The timing of learning: early years, diminished or discontinued upon starting school

    -> similar to the language of children

    •The amount input: limited, relative to natives

    -> incomplete knowledge of the HL (missing features acquired later in life)

  • The type of input: oral, informal, spontaneous,

    -> implicit knowledge of the HL


Typical hl learner from nhlrc survey carreira and kagan 2010
Typical HL learner dimensions(from NHLRC Survey, Carreira and Kagan, 2010)

  • Used their HL exclusively until age 5, when they started school

  • Has visited their country of origin once or twice;

  • Listens to music, watches soap operas, and attends religious services in their HL (not much reading);

  • Little to no schooling in the HL;

  • US born



A metaphor for thinking about hlls linguistic proficiency
A metaphor for thinking about HLLs characteristics’ linguistic proficiency

  • A house in different stages of “life”


The foundations courtesy of margot mel
The foundations characteristics(Courtesy of Margot Mel)


A metaphor for language learning in children
A metaphor for language learning in children characteristics

• By age 3, the foundations of language are set;

• Between ages 5-8 the structure is fortified and critical details are added

• During adolescence the finishing touches are put in


The complete structure courtesy of margot mel
The complete structure characteristics(Courtesy of Margot Mel)


A metaphor for language learning in children1
A metaphor for language learning in children characteristics

• By age 3, the foundations of language are set;

• Between ages 5-8 the structure/framing is completed -> TYPICAL LEARNER

• During adolescence the finishing touches are put in


The finished house courtesy of margot mel
The finished house characteristics(Courtesy of Margot Mel)


A metaphor for language learning in children2
A metaphor for language learning in children characteristics

• By age 3, the foundations of language are set;

• Between ages 5-8 the structure/framing is completed -> TYPICAL LEARNER

• During adolescence the finishing touches are put in


What does this mean for us
What does this mean for us? characteristics

  • An HL learner who spoke his HL exclusively up to age 3 will likely have complete HL foundations (e.g. canonical gender, basic aspectual differences, word order);

  • An HL learner who spoke his HL exclusively or mostly spoke it between 5-8 will have pretty much the complete structure but will need the finishing touches (fine details);


What does your learner look like
What does your learner look like? characteristics

(1) The foundations are set;

(2) The framing is complete;

(3) The house is complete but in need of details



Factors in heritage language development
Factors in heritage language development characteristics

  • Order of acquisition of the languages (HL first, followed by Eng., both lags. at the same time);

  • Age of acquisition of English(ages birth, 3-5, 6-10, adolescence)

  • Language use at home (only the HL, HL + Eng., English only);

  • Schooling in the HL;

  • General exposure to the HL (e.g. time spent abroad, media use, demographic density of local HL speakers, peer interactions);


Parenthetically
Parenthetically… characteristics

  • Yi (2008) examines how peer networks contributes to literacy.

  • The subjects of her study (2 Korean adolescents) were avid participants in instant messaging, online community posting, online diary writing, etc. to discuss topics of personal interest with their peers;

  • Yi argues that HL literacy should be tied to personal interests and peer relations.


Knowledge of the hl it boils down to exposure
Knowledge of the HL: characteristicsIt boils down to exposure

  • Order of acquisition:

    Simultaneous bilingual < sequential bilingual;

    • Age of acquisition of English: The later the better

  • Home use:

    Only HL < HL + English < Overwhelmingly English

    • Schooling:

    No schooling < schooling (a variety of types)

    • Other exposure (media, church, peers, family,

    travel abroad, social clubs, etc.)


Also… characteristics

• Language-learning aptitude

• General academic aptitude

• Motivation


Mini activity
Mini-activity characteristics


Order the following in terms of likely proficiency in the hl
Order the following in terms of characteristicslikely proficiency in the HL

  • Sequential bilingual, attends church services in the HL, speaks English and HL at home;

  • Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at home;

  • Sequential bilingual, three years of community school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home.


Order the following in terms of probable proficiency in the hl
Order the following in terms of characteristicsprobable proficiency in the HL

  • Sequential bilingual, attends church services in the HL,, speaks English and HL at home, high language learning aptitude, is studying the HL to learn about his roots and connect with friends and family;

  • Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at home, hasvisited his HL country several times,wants to make professional use of the HL;

  • Sequential bilingual, three years of community school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home, is taking HL to fulfill a language requirement


Order the following in terms of hl learning motivation persistence
Order the following in terms of HL learning characteristicsmotivation/persistence

  • Sequential bilingual, attends church services in the HL,, speaks English and HL at home, high language learning aptitude, is studying the HL to learn about his roots and connect with friends and family;

  • Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at home, hasvisited his HL country several times,wants to make professional use of the HL;

  • Sequential bilingual, three years of community school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home, is taking HL to fulfill a language requirement


Take away message
Take away message characteristics

  • It’s not so easy to classify HL learners for purposes of teaching;

  • Greater proficiency does not always mean “better” from the point of view of teaching/learning;

  • Variation has many dimensions (background, aptitude, motivations, etc.);


Take away message1
Take away message characteristics

  • It’s not so easy to classify HL learners for purposes of teaching;

  • Greater proficiency does not always mean “better” from the point of view of teaching/learning;

  • Variation has many dimensions;

  • Design the curriculum with the “typical HL learner” in mind (roughly), build in pathways for all learners;


Now we have a plan for the typical learner
Now we have a plan for the typical learner characteristics

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Socio-affective needs (broad definition)


Activity time again! characteristics

Activity II, p. 4


Are we done
Are we done? characteristics


Five core principles4
Five core principles characteristics

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Traditionally language teaching has been what centered

Traditionally, language teaching has been characteristics“what centered”

“What centered” = “curriculum centered”

Teachers start at the front of the curriculum




But what if
But what if… characteristics


And... characteristics


The curriculum centered approach in a mixed class hl l2 learners
The curriculum-centered approach characteristicsin a mixed class (HL + l2 learners)



Classes with hl learners are always heterogeneous
Classes with HL learners are always heterogeneous class – all HLLs)

• Specialized HL classes;

• Mixed classes (HL + L2);

Effective teaching in both of these contexts requires dealing with issues of learner variation.


To respond to variation focus on the who

To respond to variation: class – all HLLs)Focus on the “who”

The learner


Who centered teaching
class – all HLLs)Who” centered teaching


Five core principles5
Five core principles class – all HLLs)

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Keep your eye on your learners
Keep your eye on class – all HLLs)your learners


Why do we need learner centered teaching
Why do we need learner-centered teaching? class – all HLLs)

  • HL learners differ from each other and from L2 learners with regard to key pedagogical issues:

    - linguistic ability (in the HL and in English)

    - language aptitude

    - academic skills

    - affective needs

    - goals for their HL


The institutional context introduces additional variation
The institutional context introduces additional variation class – all HLLs)

One-track program: L2 and HL learners together (mixed classes)

Dual-track program: Separate classes for L2 and

and HL learners (HL classes)

Type 1: Only one HL course (most

common);

Type 2: Two levels of HL instruction;


For now hl classes

For now…HL classes class – all HLLs)



What not to do
What not to do class – all HLLs)


Don t
Don class – all HLLs)’t…

  • Ignore diversity (i.e. exclude learners who don’t fit the model)

    I did not give particular consideration to HL--they are usually a very small segment of the class. (The programs survey)


Don t1
Don class – all HLLs)’t…

  • Enforce the paradigm/status quo at all cost: (i.e. force all learners to conform to the curriculum)

    (Name of book) does not address the needs of HL but it does a good job at the beginning level where the majority of our students take the (name of language) as a general language requirement and where we have less HL (15%) than at more advanced levels.


Don t2
Don class – all HLLs)’t

  • Create courses than are ill-conceived from a linguistic standpoint.


An hl class arabic 100 for hl learners
An HL Class: class – all HLLs)Arabic 100 for HL learners

Arabic: Diglossia

• Modern Standard Arabic (High prestige, formal situations, written, known by educated speakers, lingua franca among Arabs from different countries);

• Colloquial Arabic (Low prestige, home language, informal communications, not commonly written, mutually unintelligible regional dialects) (Maamouri 1998)

Arabic 100:

• 11 students from six Arab countries (Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco, Egypt) and 1 student from Indonesia (Muslim).

• 2 have four or more years of education abroad, 3 have three years of religious education in Arabic in the US; the rest have no literacy skills in Arabic;


Variation in arabic 100
Variation in Arabic 100 class – all HLLs)

  • Between HL learners (as a function of life experiences)

  • Dialectal (language-specific properties)

  • Diglossic (language-specific properties)


An hl class hindi 100 for hl learners
An HL Class: class – all HLLs)Hindi 100 for HL learners

India: Hindi is the official language of the country. Individual states have their own official languages. 29 languages have over 1 million speakers. India’s languages stem primarily from two language families: Indo-Aryan in the north, and Dravidian in the south. Many languages have their own writing systems (Brass 2005, Hasnain 2003).

Gambhir (2008) identifies two primary categories of HL learners in Hindi classes – ancestral, associate (cognate and non-cognate)

Hindi 100:

16 students from five different language backgrounds;

Hindi/Urdu (7); Gujarati (4); Punjabi (2);Telugu (2); Marathi (1)


Variation in hindi 100
Variation in Hindi 100 class – all HLLs)

• Dialectal

  • Cross linguistic (different languages)

  • Between learners (HL and L2)


The crux of the problem
The crux of the problem class – all HLLs)

  • In the Arabic and Hindi programs “HL classes” are seen as a “catch all” destination for all students that do not meet the traditional profile of L2 learners.

  • Arabic and Hindi 100 do not make linguistic sense.


A better conceived class japanese 300 third year college course
A better conceived class: Japanese 300 class – all HLLs)(Third year college course)

  • 16 students (12 HL learners + 4 L2 learners)

  • HL learners:

    All have intermediate-to-advanced aural skills

    8 had three or more years of schooling;

    4 had one to two years of schooling;

    • L2 learners: All had taken four semesters of Japanese


Do… class – all HLLs)

Program level: Mitigate the problems of diversity through smart curriculum design and placement.

1) Design courses that are tailored to the local student population and that make linguistic sense for them (orient teaching around the typical learner)

2) Use placement to build maximally homogeneous classes.

Class level: Accept and deal with diversity through Differentiated Teaching (DT). Build in pathways for all learners.


Five core principles6
Five core principles class – all HLLs)

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Core principles cont2
Core principles (cont.) class – all HLLs)

• In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and L2 learners’ complimentary strengths and needs and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up) approaches as needed.

• Design courses and programs that make linguistic and demographic sense. Build maximally homogeneous classes through placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the classroom.


Taking stock
Taking stock class – all HLLs)


The what centered view of teaching enforces the paradigm at all cost
The class – all HLLs)“what” centered view of teaching enforces the paradigm at all cost


The who centered curriculum for the typical hl learner ignores diversity
The class – all HLLs)“who” centered curriculum for the typical HL learner ignores diversity


The next step
The next step… class – all HLLs)



T/F? class – all HLLs)

  • The narrow definition focuses on linguistic issues;

  • The “what” centered view of teaching is better suited to teaching HL learners than the “who” centered view of teaching;

  • Background factors can give an indication of linguistic ability in HL learners


This is a tool of differentiation
This is a tool of differentiation class – all HLLs)

  • Checks for understanding;

  • Tiered activities;


Tiered activities
Tiered activities class – all HLLs)

  • Teach the same concepts and skills, but at different levels of complexity;

  • All have common benchmarks


Writing activity
Writing activity class – all HLLs)

• Change the genre (go from short story to poem, song, etc.);

• Reduce the text;

• Writing inspired by the text


Writing activity1
Writing activity class – all HLLs)

• Change the genre (go from short story to poem, song, etc.);

• Reduce the text;

• Writing inspired by the text


Change the genre poem
Change the genre -> Poem class – all HLLs)

My name means hope

In Spanish

It has too many letters

Sadness

and w a I t I n g

It is the number 9

A muddy color

Mexican records

My father plays

When shaving, songs

Like sobbing


Recall
Recall… class – all HLLs)

  • Dragon Wings, Online workshop, Lesson 4

  • Novel -> play


Writing activity2
Writing activity class – all HLLs)

• Change the genre (go from short story to poem, song, etc.);

• Reduce the text;

• Writing inspired by the text


My name 324 126 words
My Name : 324 -> 126 words class – all HLLs)

In English my name means hope. In Spanish it means too many letters. It means sadness, it means waiting. It was my great-grandmother's name and now it is mine. My great-grandmother. I would've liked to have known her, a wild, horse of a woman, so wild she wouldn't marry. Until my great-grandfather threw a sack over her head and carried her off. I wonder if she made the best with what she got or was she sorry because she couldn't be all the things she wanted to be. Esperanza. I have inherited her name, but I don't want to inherit her place by the window. I would like to baptize myself under a new name, a name more like the real me, the one nobody sees.


Writing activity3
Writing activity class – all HLLs)

• Change the genre (go from short story to poem, song, etc.);

• Reduce the text;

•Writing inspired by the text


Acrostic poem
Acrostic Poem class – all HLLs)

Motherly

Appreciative

Resilient

Inventive

Affectionate


E class – all HLLs)

S

P

E

R

A

N

Z

A


E class – all HLLs)ngaging

Sincere

Playful

Earnest

Rebellious

Artistic

Nostalgic

Zesty

Articulate


Writing inspired by the text
Writing inspired by the text class – all HLLs)

My grandmother is a piano sonata;

Lavender soap;

A rocking chair;

A pearl necklace;

Nilla wafers after school.


Activity time again! class – all HLLs)

Activity III, pp. 4-5


Why tiered activities
Why tiered activities? class – all HLLs)


  • Tiered activities differentiate class – all HLLs)product – i.e. how students demonstrate mastery of the material.

  • You can differentiate product by learner interest, readiness, learning style…


What else can you differentiate
What else can you differentiate? class – all HLLs)

  • Product: How you demonstrate mastery of the material;

  • Process: How you gain mastery of the material;

  • Pacing: The rate at which you progress through the material;

  • Content: The material


Furthermore you can differentiate each of these elements by
Furthermore, you can differentiate each of these elements by class – all HLLs)

  • Readiness level

  • Interest

  • Student choice

  • Learning style…

  • Product;

  • Process;

  • Pacing;

  • Content


Principles of differentiated teaching dt
Principles of Differentiated Teaching (DT) class – all HLLs)

In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin where students

are, not the front of a curriculum guide. They accept and build

upon the premise that learners differ in important ways…In

differentiated classrooms, teachers provide specific ways for

each individual to learn as deeply as possible and as quickly

and possible, without assuming one student’s roadmap for

learning is identical to anyone else (Tomlinson, 2000:2).


Everyday examples of differentiation
Everyday examples of differentiation class – all HLLs)

  • Running errands

  • Driving to a destination

  • Meal preparation


Everyday examples of differentiation1
Everyday examples of differentiation class – all HLLs)

  • Running errands -> a “to do list” helps with pacing;

  • Driving to a destination -> Google directions help with process.

  • Meal preparation -> Choice with regard to the components helps with product.


Summarizing five core principles
Summarizing: Five core principles class – all HLLs)

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Core principles cont3
Core principles (cont.) class – all HLLs)

• In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and L2 learners’ complimentary strengths and needs and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up) approaches as needed.

• Design courses and programs that make linguistic and demographic sense. Build maximally homogeneous classes through placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the classroom.


Exit card
Exit Card class – all HLLs)

  • Describe an “Aha!” moment in this lesson;


Stop here

Stop here class – all HLLs)


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