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Contextualization and Methodology: 30 Years of Cognitive Linguistics (and Beyond). Dirk Geeraerts. University of Leuven RU Quantitative Lexicology and Variational Linguistics. Questions. questions for the end of an anniversary conference:

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contextualization and methodology 30 years of cognitive linguistics and beyond

Contextualization and Methodology: 30 Years of Cognitive Linguistics(and Beyond)

Dirk Geeraerts

University of LeuvenRU Quantitative Lexicology and Variational Linguistics

questions
Questions

questions for the end of an anniversary conference:

  • is there a unifying factor behind the development of Cognitive Linguistics ?
  • if so, in which direction could Cognitive Linguistics develop in the future ?

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

approach
Approach
  • present a brief overview of the history of Cognitive Linguistics
  • situate CL in the context of the history of linguistics, and thus identify major underlying trends in the development of CL
  • draw methodological and theoretical conclusions from that analysis
  • illustrate those conclusions

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide4
TOC

Step I. Thirty Years of Cognitive Linguistics

Step II. The Wider Context

Step III. Cognitive Linguistics as a Recontextualizing Approach

Step IV. Methodological Consequences

Step V. An Illustration

Overall Conclusion

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl
Thirty years of CL

three landmarks in the history of CL

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl1
Thirty years of CL

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • 1975-1977the early beginnings:Talmy 1975 on figure/groundLangacker 1976 on Cognitive GrammarLakoff 1977 on ‘gestalt’ models

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl2
Thirty years of CL

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • 1987-1989entering the international scene:1987 Langacker: Foundations of Cognitive Grammar1987 Lakoff: Women, Fire & Dangerous Things1988 Rudzka-Ostyn (ed.), Topics in CL1989 1st Intl Cognitive Linguistics Conference1989 launching Cognitive Linguistics, the journal

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl3
Thirty years of CL

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl4
Thirty years of CL

Spain 1998, Finland 2001, Poland 2001, Russia 2004, Germany 2005, France 2005, Japan 2005, Korea 2005, UK 2006, China 2006

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl5
Thirty years of CL

Ungerer & Schmid 1996

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl6
Thirty years of CL

Dirven & Verspoor 1998

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl7
Thirty years of CL

Violi 2001

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl8
Thirty years of CL

Croft & Cruse 2004

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl9
Thirty years of CL

Evans & Green 2006

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl10
Thirty years of CL

Geeraerts 2006

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl11
Thirty years of CL

Kristiansen et al. 2006

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl12
Thirty years of CL

Geeraerts & Cuyckens 2007

three landmarks in the history of CL

  • from 1996-1998 oninternational consolidation:publication of textbooks and reference worksfoundation of national ICLA affiliates

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl13
Thirty years of CL

simplifying in three decades:

  • 1977-1987: the pioneering stage
  • 1987-1997: the expansion stage
  • 1997-2007: the consolidation stage

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

thirty years of cl14
Thirty years of CL

simplifying in three decades:

  • 1977-1987: the pioneering stage
  • 1987-1997: the expansion stage
  • 1997-2007: the consolidation stage

 what are the theoretical developments accompanying this sociological expansion ?

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

step ii the wider context
Step IIThe Wider Context

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overview
Overview

an overview of the development of linguistic theory in the 20th century:

  • decontextualization
  • initial reactions
  • recontextualization

claim: CL epitomizes the recontextualizing tendency

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

saussurean grammar
Saussurean Grammar
  • langue:a social system a collective set of coded conventions
  • parole:an individual, psychological activity a set of combinations from the code

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

saussurean grammar1
Saussurean Grammar
  • a missing link:where is the locus of an individual's knowledge of the social system ?what is the bridge between the social code and the individual activity ?graphically:

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

saussurean grammar2
Saussurean Grammar

langue

parole

socialsystem

individualactivity

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saussurean grammar3
Saussurean Grammar

langue

parole

socialsystem

individualsystem

individualactivity

?

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

chomskyan grammar
Chomskyan Grammar
  • competence:filling in the gap an individual's knowledge of the language
  • but creating a new hiatus:the social nature of the system remains out of sightagain a binary instead of a ternary division

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

chomskyan grammar1
Chomskyan Grammar

langue

parole

socialsystem

individualsystem

individualactivity

?

competence

performance

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

chomskyan grammar2
Chomskyan Grammar

consequences of the Chomskyan position:

  • where does the individual knowledge of the language come from ? if the source of linguistic knowledge is not social, what is it ?⇨ innateness, a genetic conception of language
  • hence: a stepping-stone development,leading by an internal logic to an isolation of grammar:

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide31

if it cannot be social, it has to be genetic

if it is genetic, it cannot be semantic or lexical

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slide32

if it cannot be social, it has to be genetic

if it is genetic, it cannot be semantic or lexical

if it cannot be semantic or lexical, it's about formal rule systems

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide33

if it cannot be social, it has to be genetic

if it is genetic, it cannot be semantic or lexical

if it cannot be semantic or lexical, it's about formal rule systems

if it's about formal rule systems, the application of the rules is trivial

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

chomskyan grammar3
Chomskyan Grammar

social code

GRAMMAR

performance

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chomskyan grammar4
Chomskyan Grammar

social code

GRAMMAR

performance

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chomskyan grammar5
Chomskyan Grammar

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

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chomskyan grammar6
Chomskyan Grammar

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

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chomskyan grammar7
Chomskyan Grammar

in other words: a restrictive strategy that separates the autonomous grammatical module from different forms of context:

  • the social context
  • the discursive context of actual language use
  • the cognitive context of meaning and experience

↳ decontextualisation

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

initial reactions
Initial reactions
  • 1960-1980:
  • the discarded aspects of language are developed separately, as disciplines more or less independent from theoretical grammar

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initial reactions1
Initial reactions

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

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initial reactions2

socio-linguistics

Initial reactions

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

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initial reactions3

socio-linguistics

Initial reactions
  • Labov1972, Sociolinguistic PatternsHaugen1966, Language Conflict and Language PlanningWeinreich, Labov & Herzog1968, "Empirical foundations for a theory of language change"Gumperz & Dell Hymes(eds.) 1972, Directions in Sociolinguistics: the Ethnography of Speaking

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

initial reactions4

socio-linguistics

Initial reactions

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

initial reactions5

socio-linguistics

pragmatics

Initial reactions

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

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initial reactions6

socio-linguistics

pragmatics

Initial reactions
  • Grice1975, "Logic and conversation"Stalnaker1974, "Pragmatic presuppositions"Gazdar1979, Pragmatics: Implicature, Presupposition and Logical FormCoulthard1977, An Introduction to Discourse AnalysisGumperz1982, Discourse StrategiesBrown & Yule1983, Discourse AnalysisTannen 1984, Conversational Style

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

initial reactions7

socio-linguistics

pragmatics

Initial reactions

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

initial reactions8

socio-linguistics

pragmatics

formal semantics

Initial reactions

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

initial reactions9

socio-linguistics

pragmatics

formal semantics

Initial reactions

Montague 1974, Formal PhilosophyDowty 1979, Word Meaning and Montague GrammarPartee 1979, "Semantics: mathematics or psychology ?"

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

initial reactions10

socio-linguistics

pragmatics

formal semantics

Initial reactions

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

contemporary trends
Contemporary trends

general (or at least growing) tendencydissatisfaction with the modular view of linguistics,in favor of an integrated approach:the peripheral aspects that were being developed largely separately and autonomously, are being linked up more narrowly with the grammar itself (which can then no longer be autonomous)

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

contemporary trends1
Contemporary trends

↳ how does this work in CL ?

i.e. how does CL integrate the different facets that were discarded by the decontextualizing approach ?

  • meaning
  • the lexicon
  • the performance level
  • the social side of language

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

step iii cognitive linguistics as a recontextualizing approach
Step IIICognitive Linguistics as a Recontextualizing Approach

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

recovering meaning
Recovering meaning

the basic vocabulary of CL involves a set of semantic concepts:

prototype, schematic network, conceptual metaphor, metonymy, conceptual integration, idealized cognitive models, frames

and all sorts of construal mechanisms

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

recovering the lexicon
Recovering the lexicon

the family of construction grammars constitute a lexicalist approach in various respects

  • constructions may consist of abstract entities togther with lexically specific elements
  • constructions, even if abstract, have to be studied together with their lexical realization
  • semantically, constructions exhibit the same structural features as lexical categories

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

recovering performance
Recovering performance

from the beginning of CL, there is an interest in pragmatic meaning (cp. grammaticalization research), but the tendency becomes outspoken with

  • the definition CL as a usage-based theory of grammar
  • the growing interest in applied CL (acquisition, poetics, language learning, critical discourse analysis and framing)

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

recovering the social context
Recovering the social context

two major tendencies:

  • situated embodiment and the sociocultural background of meaning: biocultural linguisticscp. Chris Sinha
  • variationist CL: cognitive sociolinguisticsCL from the point of view of lectal variation (dialectal, regiolectal, sociolectal, stylistic variation)Kristiansen & Dirven (eds.) 2007

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

summary
Summary

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

summary1
Summary

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

basic concepts

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summary2
Summary

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

basic concepts

construction grammars

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summary3
Summary

usage-based CLapplied CL

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

basic concepts

construction grammars

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

summary4
Summary

cultural CLvariationist CL

usage-based CLapplied CL

social code

performance

GRAMMAR

meaning/lexicon

basic concepts

construction grammars

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

recontextualization
Recontextualization

in the context of contemporary linguistics,CL epitomizes the gradual recovery of the ‘peripheral’ modules that were discarded by a decontextualizing approach to grammar

in the context of the internal development of CL,this recovery takes the form of a gradual broadening of the notion of context:

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

recontextualization1
Recontextualization
  • from the beginning, in its basic concepts, CL assumes a contextualized notion of meaning:meaning in language is not isolated, but is integrated with other types of cognitionexisting categories  polysemyencyclopedic knowledge  frames and ICM’sgeneral cognitive capacities  construal

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

recontextualization2
Recontextualization
  • construction grammar and usage-based approaches add the discursive context of actual language use;some focal points of investigation:- the dialectic interplay between structure and use- the discourse function of items and the discursive grounding of constructions (Current Discourse Space)- the discursive dynamics of meaning

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

recontextualization3
Recontextualization
  • biocultural CL and variationist CL add the social context of cultures and lectal variation the underlying drift of CL consists of a systematic recontextualization of the grammar

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

chronology
Chronology

can we map this contextual expansion onto the chronological evolution of CL?

  • the pioneering stage and the consolidation stage focused largely on the basic concepts
  • the expansion stage was devoted to the broadening of the relevant notion of context;some landmarks:

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

chronology1
Chronology
  • construction grammar:Goldberg 1995 ConstructionsCroft 1999 Radical Construction Grammar
  • cultural linguistics:Palmer 1996 Towards a Theory of Cultural LinguisticsZlatev 1997 Situated Embodiment

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

chronology2
Chronology
  • usage-based approaches:Barlow & Kemmer 2000 Usage-based Models of LanguageTomasello 2003 Constructing a Language
  • variationist approaches:Kristiansen & Dirven 2007 Cognitive Sociolinguistics

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

step iv methodological consequences
Step IVMethodological Consequences

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

methodological consequences
Methodological consequences

if we can agree that CL is essentially characterized by a recontextualizing ‘drift’, there are specific consequences with regard to

  • the observational basis of linguistic research
  • the analytical method of linguistic research
  • the theoretical model of the grammar

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

the observational basis
The observational basis

if you take a usage-based model seriously, you will have to study actual language use

 a shift from introspective conceptual analysisto the study ofnon-elicited language use: corpus linguisticson line processes: experimental research

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

the analytical tools
The analytical tools

if you take the dialectic relationship between structure and use seriously, you need to take into account patterns of use (frequency and entrenchment)

if you wish to investigate how diverse factors like meaning, structure, discourse and lectal variation interact, the sheer complexity of the phenomena calls for appropriate methods a shift towards quantitative testing of hypotheses

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

the theoretical model
The theoretical model

if we assume that factors like meaning, structure, discourse and lectal variation co-determine grammatical phenomena, then we cannot exclude a radical non-modular conception of grammar  a shift towards a multifactorial descriptive model of the grammar that does not a priori impose a distinction between various levels of analysis

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

three footnotes
Three footnotes
  • all of this is in line with fundamental insights of the founding fathers of CL:in particular, cp. key notions introduced by Ron Langacker that embody various forms of contextualization as defined above:usage-based grammarconstruction grammarcurrent discourse space

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

three footnotes1
Three footnotes
  • quantitative corpus-based or experimental research is not the traditional way of doing CL, but it is an emerging trendcp. theme session ‘Corpus-driven Corpus Linguistics’

theoretical justification: see contributions by Gibbs and Geeraerts in 1st volume of the new series Applications of Cognitive Linguistics

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

three footnotes2
Three footnotes
  • quantitative corpus-based or experimental research does not eliminate introspectionin an empirical cycle, introspective interpretation is indispensableto arrive at testable hypothesesto interpret the results of the empirical testbut it is not itself the test

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

step v an illustration
Step VAn Illustration

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slide78
What ?
  • a case study illustrating the type of approach suggested above
  • if we agree that CL is a recontextualizing approach par excellence, and if we agree that this will have methodological consequences,what would it mean in practice ?

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide79
What ?
  • make / let causation in Dutch:is the distribution of laten ‘let’ determined by indirect causation ?
  • Kemmer & Verhagen 1994; Stukker 2006:direct causation: doen ‘make’indirect causation: laten ‘let’

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide80
What ?
  • make / let causation in Dutch: is the distribution of laten ‘let’ determined by indirect causation ?
  • Kemmer & Verhagen 1994; Stukker 2006:direct causation: doenindirect causation: laten

I make him collect the tickets

versus

I let him collect the tickets

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide81
What ?
  • make / let causation in Dutch: is the distribution of laten ‘let’ determined by indirect causation ?
  • Kemmer & Verhagen 1994; Stukker 2006:direct causation: doenindirect causation: laten

"The causer produces the effected event directly; there is no intervening energy source 'downstream'"(Stukker 2006: 50)

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide82
What ?
  • make / let causation in Dutch: is the distribution of laten ‘let’ determined by indirect causation ?
  • Kemmer & Verhagen 1994; Stukker 2006:direct causation: doenindirect causation: laten

"Besides the causer, the causee is the most immediate source of energy in the effected event. The causee has some degree of 'autonomy' in the causal process"(Stukker 2006: 50)

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide83
How ?

what we need:

  • a representative corpus of language data
  • a set of potentially relevant factors coded in the corpus
  • a statistical technique analysing the relevance of the factors

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide84
How ?

what we need:

  • a representative corpus of language data
  • a set of potentially relevant factors coded in the corpus
  • a statistical technique analysing the relevance of the factors

CGN – Corpus of spoken Dutch, release 1.0

900 hrs, tagged

2/3 Dutch, 1/3 Flemish

register and text type variation (see below)

automatic data selection with manual correction

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide85
How ?

what we need:

  • a representative corpus of language data
  • a set of potentially relevant factors coded in the corpus
  • a statistical technique analysing the relevance of the factors

for closer analysis in a moment:external factorsinternal factors

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

slide86
How ?

what we need:

  • a representative corpus of language data
  • a set of potentially relevant factors coded in the corpus
  • a statistical technique analysing the relevance of the factors

stepwise logistic regression:

what is the impact of a multitude of possibly relevant factors on the variation observed in the (categorical) data?

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

external factors
External factors

wired-in variation in the CGN:

  • speaker characteristics: sex, age, educational level
  • regional variation: Belgian Dutch vs. Netherlandic Dutch
  • register variation: 15 'components', divided along three dimensions dialogues and multilogues vs. monologues private speech vs. public speech spontaneous vs. prepared speech

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

internal factors
Internal factors
  • syntactic construction type
  • coreferentiality between matrix subject and infinitival subject/object
  • animacy of matrix subject
  • lexical collocational strength

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

internal factors1
Internal factors
  • syntactic construction type
  • coreferentiality between matrix subject and infinitival subject/object
  • animacy of matrix subject
  • lexical collocational strength

if laten expresses indirect causation, you don't expect laten in constructions with intransitive verbs, where the "causee" is not expressed

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

internal factors2
Internal factors
  • syntactic construction type
  • coreferentiality between matrix subject and infinitival subject/object
  • animacy of matrix subject
  • lexical collocational strength

if doen expresses direct causation, coreferentiality should favour the use of doen (you cannot get more direct)

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

internal factors3
Internal factors
  • syntactic construction type
  • coreferentiality between matrix subject and infinitival subject/object
  • animacy of matrix subject
  • lexical collocational strength

if doen expresses direct causation, you expect more doen with animate matrix subjects (animate subjects have more control over the flow of energy)

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

internal factors4
Internal factors
  • syntactic construction type
  • coreferentiality between matrix subject and infinitival subject/object
  • animacy of matrix subject
  • lexical collocational strength

if the relevant factors are purely semantic ones (a model of causation), you don't expect any collocational idiomatization (lexical fixation)

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

construction types
Construction types

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

overview of factors
Overview of factors

a typical example of the type of analysis we suggested:

  • a usage-based analysis, taking into account
  • semantics (animacy)
  • lexical and constructional factors (collocation, construction pattern)
  • lectal variation (region, register)

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

results
Results
  • stepwise logistic regression:construct a model explaining the variation in the data (in our case: the choice between doen and laten),by stepwise adding the factors (as coded in the database) that contribute most to the reduction of the variation
  • 3975 observations, of which less than 10% doen
  • relevant factors, in order of importance:

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

results1
Results
  • construction typein contrast with the intransitive condition, transitives boost the presence of laten
  • animacy: inanimate matrix subjects massively support doen, e.g.de wind deed hem huiveren
  • country: Flemish has more doen than Dutch

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

results2
Results
  • register: the majority of non-spontaneous, prepared text types significantly support doen
  • collocational measuressignificant lexical collocation enhances doen: some verbs typically associate with doen (more than inanimacy of subject etc. predict); as a marked form, doen tends to be a lexical exception

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

summary5
Summary
  • the default form for causatives is laten, to the extent that the more typically causative a construction is, the more readily it uses laten
  • doen is a marked form, triggered by constructional (inanimacy of matrix subject, intransitivity of verb) ànd lexical factors
  • doen is more formal, given its distribution over registers, than laten
  • the restrictions on the use of doen are less outspoken in Flemish than in Dutch

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

summary6
Summary
  • is it possible to find a unifying interpretation for these results ?
  • the direct/indirect causation model is not completely adequate:a majority of the predictions that we started off with is not confirmed

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

summary7
Summary
  • intransitivity halts laten: not correct
  • coreferentiality boosts doen: not correct
  • animacy boosts doen: not correct
  • idiomaticity plays no role: not correct
  • lectal effects are not expected: not correct

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alternative
Alternative

 an alternative interpretative hypothesis:

doen is an archaic form; this ties in with all the relevant observations, i.e.

a) that it is typical for more formal registers

b) that it is sensitive to lexical associations (idiomatic effects as a form of relics)

c) that it occurs more in Belgian Dutch (which is known to be the more archaic variety in a number of respects)

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alternative1
Alternative

d) that, semantically speaking, it seems to be retracting to one core form of causation, i.e. direct material causation(the directness explains the intransitivity effect: transitives involve an intermediate entity)

(the material aspect relates to the inanimacy of the subjects, as opposed to the volitional causation of human subjects)

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conclusion
Conclusion
  • interpretative hypotheses based on typically CL-based assumptions can be empirically tested,i.e. they can be subjected to the empirical cycle

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

conclusion1
Conclusion
  • interpretative hypotheses based on typically CL-based assumptions can be empirically tested,i.e. they can be subjected to the empirical cycle

testable hypothesis

theory

empiricaltest

interpretation

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

conclusion2
Conclusion
  • such tests need to involve all the types of context that form part of the underlying ‘recontextualizing drift’ of CL (semantic, constructional, lexical, discursive, lectal context)
  • the resulting model is a multifactorial grammar in which grammatical phenomena are simultaneously sensitive to various factors

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overall conclusions
Overall Conclusions

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the first 30 years
The first 30 years
  • is there a unifying factor behind the development of Cognitive Linguistics ?
  • if contemporary linguistics is indeed going through a phase of recontextualisation after the Chomskyan decontextualisation of the grammar,then CL represents that recontextualizing tendency more than any other approach

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

and beyond
And beyond
  • if so, in which direction could Cognitive Linguistics develop in the future ?
  • if CL continues on the path of corpus-based and experimental usage-based analyses, then a multifactorial model of the grammar is a perfect embodiment of a recontextualized grammar

ICLC X. Kraków 20.07.2007

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for further information:

http://wwwling.arts.kuleuven.be/qlvl

dirk.geeraerts@arts.kuleuven.be