PROJECT SCOPE, SCHEDULE, AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. TRIPLE CONSTRAINTS. Project Management Triple Constraints or “ Iron Triangle ” is a model of constraints of project management. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMET. SCOPE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES.
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TRIPLE CONSTRAINTS Project Management Triple Constraints or “Iron Triangle” is a model of constraints of project management
SCOPE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Collect Requirements: Determining and documenting stakeholder needs Define Scope: Developing detailed description of project and product Create WBS: Subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable parts
WHAT IS WBS? Project Management Inctitute (PMI) defines WBS as: “A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables”
WHAT IS WBS? Wikipediadefines WBS as: “A work breakdown structure (WBS), in project management and systems engineering, is a deliverable oriented decomposition of a project into smaller components. It defines and groups aproject's discrete work elements in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project.” “A work breakdown structure element may be a product, data, service, or any combination.”
WBS TYPES Approaches to break activities into detail by: Product component approach Examples: Design documents, manuals, the running system Functional approach Analysis, design, implementation, integration, testing, delivery, reviews Geographical area Examples: TUM team, CMU team, off-shore team, ... Organizational approach Research, product development, marketing, sales
WBS LEVELS Each level of WBS represents an increasingly detailed definition of project WBS lays out the individual elements that will construct the project Each element must be numbered Lowest level elements are called “Work Packages”
WBS LEVELS AND NUMBERING Major project deliverables or activities are identified Codes assigned to each WBS component Level 0 - project itself Level 1 - major deliverables Level 2 - individual components of each deliverable Etc. Final level – work package
1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3.1 1.2.1 1.3.2 1.2.2 1.2.3 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 WBS NUMBERING SYSTEM The project is the overall project under development Work Packages are individual project activities Deliverables are major project components Sub-deliverables are supporting deliverables
WBS PURPOSE Project Scope: Shows all project activities that will be necessary to do Project Chart: Project organization shows structural hierarchy of project team. WBS shows structural hierarchy of project work to be done Project Time & Cost Estimation: Work packages are used to estimate time & cost, and they are rolled-up (aggregated) upwards Project Measurement & Control: Each work package is assigned a cost account, and its status is tracked
WBS DESIGN Top-Down Bottom-Up Both Top-Down & Bottom-Up Rolling Wave – greater decomposition occurs as project components becomes more defined over time Each level should contain around +/- 7 elements
WORK PACKAGE Work packages should contain activities that are short in duration (1 or 2 weeks) Work package activities can be completed by an individual or a small team All work packages should be similar in size or effort needed unless work package is being outsourced to another company
WBS REPRESENTATION Organization Chart (Tree-Structued like in previous examples) Indented List Bubble-Chart
TIME MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Define Activities: Identify specific actions to be performed to produce project deliverables Sequence Activities: Identifying relationships among project activities Estimate Activity Resources: Estimate type of quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies to perform each activity Estimate Activity Durations: Estimate number of hours to complete each activity Develop Schedule: Analyze activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create schedule model
DEFINE ACTIVITIES Break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling,executing, monitoring, and controlling Activity definitions include description, name, identifier, WBS (Work Package) ID, predessor & successor activities, leads & lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions, person responsible, etc.