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module 2

Module 2


what is development about

Development is about growth. It is both a process and a desired state. Several definitions exist and each has its own indicators by which it is measured. Phrases that have been coined to describe countries include: developed, developing, undeveloped, under-developed, less-developed etc.

There are also schools of thought challenging the world view’s “myth of development” essentially postulating that the ideology subscribes to a biased, Western model which puts the industrialized nations at the top of the proverbial pyramid with ‘Third World’ countries having no hope of ever becoming ‘developed’.

definitions of development
  • Economic Development – A sustained increase in the value of goods and services produced by a country.
  • Sustainable Development – Development that meets the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus economic as well as social factors are considered
indicators and factors of development
  • Social and Economic Equalisation – Equal opportunities for all in accessing goods and services. Equal distribution of wealth regardless of race, creed or class. The type of politics/government heavily influences this factor.
  • Productivity – refers to the increase in output relative to input to determine profits or loses, usually expressed by:

Prod = Output(GDP)

Input(Factors of production- capital, enterprise, land ,labour)

  • Attitudes – Improved Attitudes and Institutions - A common feeling of nationalism where every citizen feels a sense of ownership of a nation affects productivity, respect for the environment and social stability and harmony.
indicators cont d
Indicators cont’d
  • Rationally co-ordinated system of policy measures- Refers to the type of governance that exists in a country. Policies should have clear goals and objectives that synchronize with each other and collectively serve the national interest.
  • Knowledge – Modern Knowledge is measured by access to education, adult literacy and mean years of schooling attained; ability to embrace new technologies and develop innovations and inventions which in turn can generate income
indicators cont d1
Indicators (cont’d)
  • Income – Levels of income (GDP/GNP) gives an indication of how well the economy has functioned over a given period. GNP capita asserts whether a country is able to feed its growing population, provide essential services such as health and education and support an acceptable level of employment.
factors cont d
FACTORS (cont’d)
  • Cultural factors- different views exist as to the cultural foundation upon which we develop our societies in the Caribbean. These include i) Capitalism/modernism ii) Plantation society/dependency iii) Creolization theory
factors cont d1
FACTORS (cont’d)
  • Environmental factors – In the Caribbean, environmental hazards are inevitable, however, legislation such as strict building codes can help to mitigate the effects of such hazards. Inequalities in the society can lead to poorer groups being more vulnerable. Environmental hazards are also created by big businesses using shortcuts to make more money and by poorer classes who settle on hillslopes etc. In addition there still persists a lackadaisical attitude by some towards ecological disasters,”God is s Trini”
the tourism factor

The tourism industry often referred to as the invisible trade is the biggest industry in the world today and many Caribbean countries are seeking to capitalise on its benefits especially in light of the failure agricultural industries and the absence of manufacturing industries in most islands. However it is by nature an industry that encourages dependency. From the traditional sun, sea and sand, the tourism product as determined by the visitors have expanded to include ecotourism, adventure tourism, sports tourism, enclave tourism, health tourism, festival tourism and cruise ship tourism.

contribution of tourism to the region
  • Increased GDP for countries
  • Economic diversification
  • Creation of employment
  • Development of niche markets
  • Fosters preservation of culture and the environment
challenges faced by tourism
  • Repatriation of foreign dollars in all-inclusive hotels
  • Environmental degradation
  • Cultural erasure
  • Overdependence of economies on such a fragile and transient industry (new monoculture)
  • Social problems – trafficking of drugs, humans ammo.;

- rise in STDs and other communicable diseases

  • Loss of locally owned land
globalisation and development
  • Globalisation is the process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world’s markets and businesses so that they function as one global market.
  • The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages and popular culture without the restriction of nation-state borders.
stages of globalization
  • Internationalization of economic institutions in Europe and North America
  • Reduction in transport costs by improvements in shipping and railways before WWII
  • After WWII the process continued as institutions such as the UN, World Bank, IMF and GATT stabilized currencies, increasing trade and production
  • The minimizing of controls continued even after the 1970s oil crisis
  • The rise of TNCs or MNCs accelerated free trade and bolstered international capital
facilitators of globalisation twwit
  • IMF (International Monetary Fund) – est. in 1945 to help in the recovery of post –war Europe. Today it also lends funds to other nations under conditions and advises on macroeconomic policy (currency devaluations etc.)
  • World Bank (Formerly International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) – est. around the same time of the IMF with a similar philosophy. However while the IMF was concerned with macro issues the WB deals with specific projects lending. The emphasis is essentially structural adjustments within the economic philosophy of liberalisation of trade practices. This institution is US led and controlled.
facilitators cont d
  • WTO (World Trade Organization) – formerly GATT(General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade) was founded in 1947 in Geneva, Switzerland. Its main focus is the promotion of free trade by encouraging compliance of trade agreements, lowering barriers to trade and focusing on tariffs. Unlike the IMF and WB its clear mandate focuses on globalization rather that internationalization.
  • TNCs (Transnational Corporations) - Essentially a TNC pulls together the factors of finance, technology, raw material supplies, manufacturing, distribution and, marketing in one privately owned organization. This entity is usually controlled in one country but draws upon the resources in many other countries. Examples include Pepsi, Courts, Shell and Holiday Inn.
characteristics of globalisation scared

These can be summarized in the acronym, SCARED

  • Submission to an economic model
  • Constriction of capital flow
  • Access to more markets
  • Removal of preferential trade
  • Erasure and hybridization of culture
  • Deepening of social inequality
impacts and responses to globalisation
  • Industry and commerce
  • Distributional sector
  • Labour
  • Technology
  • Ideology
  • Communication
  • Organization
  • Finance
impacts and responses
  • Distributional sector -Businesses have been forced to expand their choices and lower prices in the face of competition. Others have had to merge an form conglomerates; supermarkets have evolved into megamarkets e.g. TruValu
  • Industry and commerce – Business have had to adjust their outputs and level of technology to meet a global market.
  • Labour – labour has become more global since one’s skills can be easily transferred within the human resource of MNCs. For example several engineers, teachers nurses etc. have found well paying jobs in N America, Africa and the Middle East. Training has also become global with distance learning.
impacts cont d
IMPACTS cont’d…
  • Technology – the use of ICTs has accelerated especially within the last ten years, technology has kept pace with the ever expanding markets in an ever-shrinking world. Knowledge sharing has made processes more efficient in domestic, economic and political circles. Interestingly many government ministries have struggled to keep up.
  • Ideology – the expansion of the markets of ideas have had some positive and negative consequences. Examples of ideologies are trade liberalisation, protectionism, fundamentalism etc.
  • Communication – By satellite television and the internet the whole world is reachable. World cup football is watched while in progress by a least a fifth of the world’s population.
globalisation vs regionalism
  • The Integration Movement:

The recognition that the peoples of the English-speaking Caribbean share a common identity, even with diversity has prompted persistent efforts at regional integration. However, reluctance among territories stem from feelings that cooperation may involve losing one’s national identity. Thus development efforts in the Caribbean operate within a context characterized by this tension between regionalism and globalisation.

the integration movement
  • The West Indies Federation (1958-1962)

- establishment of a federal state à la U.S.A

2. CARICOM – Caribbean Common Market (1973)

  • Free trade area with a common external tariff

3. OECS – Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (1981)

  • A common currency, bank, judicial system and so on but not a unitary state

4. ACS – Association of Caribbean States (1994)– the 4th largest trading bloc in the world comprising of the Caribbean region and Central and South America.

integration cont d

5. Free Trade of the Americas (FTAA) – This is proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce trade barriers among all nations of the Western Hemisphere with the exception of Cuba

6. CSME (1989) – Caribbean Single Market and Economy

This body concerns itself with the removal of barriers to trade and travel

other facilitators of regionalism
  • University of the West Indies(UWI)1949
  • Caribbean Examinations Council(CXC)1972
  • West Indies Cricket Board(WICB)1928
  • Caribbean Tourism Organisation(CTO)
  • Regional Security System(RSS)
sport and development
  • Sport – structured physical activities that have a history, precise rules and also refers to more casual activities such as aerobics or even walking.
sport cont d
SPORT cont’d

Benefits –

  • Health and fitness
  • Character building
  • Intellectual development – scholarships
  • Generation of income and employment
  • Development of a Caribbean identity(cricket)
  • Establishment of a Caribbean presence on the world scene
challenges to sport development
  • Raw talent is not enough in an extremely competitive environment where sport is a science and heavy capital investment is needed to adequately prepare for competition
  • A policy for sport development with the appropriate financial backing is needed however this competes with more urgent needs in security and education, for example
  • Sport is still seen by many as only a recreational activityand not as a meaningful contributor to human development.
intellectual traditions
  • An ideology refers to the ideas and manner of thinking of a group, social class or individual.
  • It also refers to a system of ideas or ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political policy.
intellectual traditions influencing the caribbean
  • Pan Africanism
  • Negritude
  • Industrialization by Invitation
  • Marxism and neo-Marxism
  • Feminism
  • Indo-Caribbean thought
  • Indigenous perspectives
pan africanism


Pan Africanism is a socio-political worldview, philosophy and movement which seeks to unify native Africans and those of African heritage into the ‘global African community’. It calls for a politically and economically united Africa or unity of African people. It also seeks to educate Africans about their glorious history, common struggles as well as to advocate for equal rights for all.

the negritude movement
The Negritude Movement

This movement involved the French colonies of Africa and the Caribbean which called on all people of African origin to celebrate their blackness. Started by intellectuals in Paris who were opposed to a new French policy of total assimilation of all colonies. Its main proponents included Matinicans , AimeCesaire and Leopold Senghor was was president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980. Much disparity in views persisted in how and by what means liberation should come about. However there exists a plethora of writings in philosophy, politics, history and art that celebrates this popular movement.

the black power movement
The Black Power Movement
  • By the 1960s the struggle for uplifting African peoples was taken up in the USA by Martin Luther King Jr whose peaceful movement for equality was thwarted by his assassination in 1966 .
  • Following his demise the Black Power movement emerged as a more radical force to combat white supremacy. Some of it’s famous leaders had Caribbean roots, such as Malcolm X form the Nation of Islam and Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael)
  • The Marxist influence of the movement also attracted trade unionists who incorporated its philosophy into their struggles for social justice. In 1970 in Trinidad , A young Lieutenant, Raffique Shah led an armed rebellion against the government with a small battalion of soldiers.
  • This was a culmination of months of protests form trade union leaders for better working conditions, civil society groups for social justice and political movements for political rights and freedoms.
industrialisation by invitation
Industrialisation by Invitation
  • Operation Bootstrap is the popular name for this concept which was first initiated by Puerto Rico after WWII
  • It would later be modified by Sir Arthur Lewis of St. Lucia to become the model for the new economic model of the British colonies
  • It’s main characteristics included heavy foreign direct investment, tax holidays and large scale production geared to a foreign market; cheap local labour and adequate infrastructure to set up industrial estates.
marxism and neo marxism
Marxism and Neo-Marxism
  • Marxism developed by Karl Marx put forward a theory of development that espoused ideas of empowering the majority through joint ownership of the means of production.
  • It saw capitalism as an unjust system of distribution of resources which would eventually fall – often by violent means to usher in a new order.
  • Neo- Marxists fused the ideas of Marxism within the context of their respective societies. These are often referred to as socialist states which can be seen as a stage in communism (a utopian ideal, where the state is no longer relevant in the society)
  • Form the original implementers of Marxism such as Lenin(Russia) to Caribbean leaders and thinkers such as C.L.R. James, CheddiJagan and Michael Manley these ideas in its many versions have greatly influenced intellectual thought in the region.
caribbean feminism
Caribbean Feminism
  • Feminism involves the struggle for equal rights for women in the society.
  • CAFRA – Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and Action is the main body advocating for women’s rights in the Caribbean
  • Through various media the message has been slowly getting out , e.g. through literary works such as ‘Crick Crack Monkey’ by Merle Hodge, in politics through Eugenia Charles (Dominica), in law through Lynette Seebarran Suite and in education Patricia Mohammed.
  • One of the greatest challenges for feminist awakening is that most of these advocates are academics thus women at the lower social levels are still socialized in a male dominated manner.
indo caribbean thought
Indo-Caribbean thought
  • Much effort has been made by immigrants from India and their descendants to preserve their religion, culture and identity through cultural retentions and works of literature and music and through political associations
  • Trinidad, Guyana and Suriname have the largest East Indians and in these territories one can observe the perpetuation of Islam and Hinduism, the celebration of Eid and Divali, the infusion of Indian culinary arts dress, language and music into local culture.
  • Even though many practices persist, there has been some degree of assimilation and hybridisation of culture as seen for example in the growing number of mixed marriages, and the emerging of ‘cross-over’ music such as chutney soca in Trinidad.
  • Some influential intellectuals include Samuel Selvon (Guyana) and V.S. Naipaul (Trinidad) who wrote about the struggles of Indians as a minority group in the Caribbean.
indigenous perspectives
Indigenous perspectives

Several intellectual works by West Indian historians have sought to debunk certain myths about the indigenous population – that they were extremely naïve and docile(Arawaks) or war-like(Caribs) or that they have been completely wiped out with the remaining few not of ‘pure’ Amerindian ancestry, or that they have no history and thus have had little effect on Caribbean history, society and culture.

In Guyana, Dominica and Belize there have been struggles to correct injustices against Amerindians with reference to land rights, social economic and political marginalisation as well as a thrust to link to indigenous people in the region and around the world to strengthen their legacy.

roles and functions of the mass media

The media is a main conduit of information around the world. It collectively refers to the collection and transmission of data through magazines, phono-recordings, films, print and all electronic media.

The global knowledge and technological development has been facilitated by the mass media, especially the electronic media at the end of the twentieth century. The last decade is often referred to as the information age.

the media cont d
THE MEDIA cont’d

The media has three main functions

  • To inform
  • To entertain
  • To raise societal awareness
to inform

For people to make informed choices adequate information needs to reach people in a timely manner. These choices may range from purchasing a product, planning a project, preserving the environment, protecting oneself from hazards as well as selecting people to positions of leadership. However the information that ultimately reaches the public is a function of several factors including:

  • Government policies concerning a free press
  • Big business interests
  • Mode of news delivery (news for entertainment etc.)
  • The impact of foreign press and cultural imperialism
  • Besides the obvious feeling of well being that comes from entertainment, many interest groups and governments have found that entertainment can serve as a medium to transmit educational messages to a more receptive audience
  • There also have been attempts to showcase local talent, however artistes seldom receive recognition and royalties for their work. This is one of the obstacles to a thriving entertainment industry
media and national identity
  • In the past, countries such as Antigua and Barbuda and Cuba, government owned almost all the media
  • In other territories such as Trinidad and Tobago there are laws facilitating a mandatory space and time for government programming
  • CANA – Caribbean News Agency and CBU – Caribbean Broadcasting Union have developed programmes that inform about issues in several territories. Unfortunately, these instruments have not been fully utilized to achieve regional unity. Moreover the majority of their broadcast now focuses on politics, sport and entertainment at the expense of other issues such as the economy, health and security.
  • The Jamaica Cultural Development commission highlights cultural activities of the country through radio and television
media and cultural imperialism
  • With the advent of cable television, the region has been awashed with US culture( speech, dress, values etc.)
  • We have absorbed their political views, stereotypes, dreams and aspirations. This has been a driving force behind the changing roles of men and women and the awareness of children. Some of these changes are positive and some are negative.
observation of media rights and privileges
Observation of media rights and privileges

For the media to perform their tasks effectively certain rights must be observed

  • Right to security of person
  • Freedom to access information (Freedom of Information Act)
  • Equitable treatment of media organisations by public figures
  • Freedom of movement through countries and regions(CSME)
media and public health
Media and Public Health
  • Raises awareness and facilitates networking and social support
  • Creates climate of opinion for action
  • Provides advice for healthy living
  • Changes attitudes by providing examples and role models
  • Promoting specific products, events opportunities
  • Broadcasting achievements and rewarding action
  • Raises awareness and action for HIV/AIDS epidemic on individual, national and regional level
freedom of the press and development
Freedom of the Press and Development

A properly functioning media should be able to increase the accountability of both big businesses and government through monitoring and reputational penalties while allowing customers to make more informed decisions.

Factors influencing the independence of the media include

  • Level of democracy
  • Ownership
  • Culture and expectations
  • The legal system
  • Availability of trained personnel
  • In a democratic society it follows there should be a free press
  • Government owned media tends to be of lesser quality, little investigative work and laden with government propaganda
  • When there is little competition or a monopoly, again the owners and advertisers who sponsor programs gain control over the information disseminated, thus lack of local content when there is no sponsorship. There is also the risk of the erosion of democracy.
culture and expectations
Culture and expectations
  • Some countries have never been able to experience the usefulness of an effective and free media thus efforts must be made to sensitise people about the power of information to improve their daily lot
the legal system
The legal system
  • Constitution guarantees the right of freedom of the press
  • The issue of libel against persons and institutions which abuse this freedom
  • Freedom of Information Act allows average citizen to ask questions of authorities in seeking justice
  • Laws governing granting of licenses, distribution of information and censorship (criminalizing of certain words and acts in public, ostensibly to stabilize society)
availability of trained personnel
Availability of trained personnel
  • CARIMAC - Caribbean Institute of Mass Communications

Is the major regional institution for training media professionals. However several professionals in the region have been trained in the US and the UK and this affects the way news is conceived, packaged and distributed vis a vis, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube etc.(e.g. U-report on TV6)

social justice issues in the caribbean
  • Gender equality
  • Class/race discrimination
  • Minority rights
  • Indigenous people
  • Disabled/elderly
  • Street people/AIDS victims
  • Rights of the child
issues in social justice
  • Rights for all versus fairness to all (e.g. aboriginal lands)
  • The need for welfare for the vulnerable in society(distributive justice)
  • Responsibilities- to produce while demanding service
  • Natural rights(right to life and liberty) versus the social contract to respect the rights of others
  • Prejudices(attitudes), stereotype(set of ideas typifying a group), discrimination(open acts against a group)
  • The concept of the ‘Other’ as opposed to ‘normal’ people(meaning oneself)

For many years, women in the Caribbean were not given equal opportunities in the pursuit of employment or education. During the last two decades of the twentieth century, women in the Caribbean experienced significant increases in opportunities. Women are using their education to move into many management positions, traditionally dominated by men. Issues still arise with reference to equal pay and promotion

gender discrimination
  • In a research paper published by Bellony et al(2010), and funded by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) it was found that in Barbados males earned an average 8 -17 per cent more than females and in Jamaica an astounding 14 -27 per cent more for the same work!
class discrimination
  • Even though independence and democracy have levelled the playing field somewhat there is still much to be done in creating equality of opportunities.
  • There are cases in the Caribbean where political tribalism leads to unequal opportunities since employment, education and justice are afforded based on political allegiance. (See issues relating to awarding of contracts, appointments to state boards, and in Trinidad - the administration pre-2010: scholarships to supporters and family)
  • People of inner-city and rural areas are often discriminated against in terms of opportunities and justice, while upper classes who engage in white-collar crime are often dealt with leniently. (See Brad Boyce trial) This creates feelings of disenfranchisement which may lead to social unrest.
race discrimination
  • Even though institutional racism no longer exists, there still remains a sort of pigmentocracy– where varying skin tones and physical features are ranked in terms of perceived superiority. There have been stark instances of this practice of discrimination especially with reference to club memberships, job opportunities and access to social events.
  • Though small in number, minority groups must have equal opportunities to participate in society. The existence of aboriginal peoples in at least five Caricom countries (Belize, Dominica, Guyana, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago) brings into focus the lack of social equity and social justice for these minority groups. Any policy for these people must take certain factors into consideration such as land rights and the need to preserve their relationship with their natural environment, the need to preserve their native language and access to social service and even a political voice.(See Belize land rights issue)
the disabled
  • Unlike in the past where they were not able to live independently, disabled people are now accessing premises and thus educational and job opportunities. Ministries of social development in several territories are working towards making this group of people more productive members of society and not just dependent on welfare rights.
  • Some credit should be given to NGOS such as the Barbados Council for the Disabled who among other initiatives, launched Wheelchair Tennis to the into the sporting arena as well as an awards system for facilities that have upgraded to accommodate disabled people. (Note also, George Daniel – Trinidad; DPI)

These people must be protected from ageist practices some of which include:

  • Mandatory retirement at 60 -65 even though a person at that age may still be very productive
  • Reluctance or refusal to hire people above a certain age
  • Insurance benefits may not be granted or premiums may increase when applying after 35. Also most policies expire at age 60-70 at best
  • Less of the national budget is spent on geriatric services
  • It is noteworthy that several populations of the Caribbean including Trinidad and Tobago now have an ageing population (2011 census)
  • Elderly people are often left out of social events, such as companies’ family days since these are geared towards younger people
  • Media stereotypes such as ‘grouchy old man’ and ‘old maid’ are perpetuated in movies and tv shows
  • Language associated with older people such as ‘elderly’ are often used in medical literature to automatically indicate ‘sick and frail’
  • Jokes about the elderly often focus around the perception that they are forgetful or deaf.
hiv aids victims and street people
  • Public campaigns and implementation of laws and policies have seen the lot of these groups improve in the last decade of so. For AIDS victims there is now legislation to protect them from unlawful dismissal and discriminating hiring practices. There also have been programmes geared toward rehabilitating street dwellers which includes the provision of shelter, medical services and training programmes. One must note that many of these programmes to help the vulnerable in society are spearheaded by Non-Governmental Organisations(NGOs).