Module 2. ISSUES IN CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT ABOUT?.
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ISSUES IN CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT
Development is about growth. It is both a process and a desired state. Several definitions exist and each has its own indicators by which it is measured. Phrases that have been coined to describe countries include: developed, developing, undeveloped, under-developed, less-developed etc.
There are also schools of thought challenging the world view’s “myth of development” essentially postulating that the ideology subscribes to a biased, Western model which puts the industrialized nations at the top of the proverbial pyramid with ‘Third World’ countries having no hope of ever becoming ‘developed’.
Prod = Output(GDP)
Input(Factors of production- capital, enterprise, land ,labour)
The tourism industry often referred to as the invisible trade is the biggest industry in the world today and many Caribbean countries are seeking to capitalise on its benefits especially in light of the failure agricultural industries and the absence of manufacturing industries in most islands. However it is by nature an industry that encourages dependency. From the traditional sun, sea and sand, the tourism product as determined by the visitors have expanded to include ecotourism, adventure tourism, sports tourism, enclave tourism, health tourism, festival tourism and cruise ship tourism.
- rise in STDs and other communicable diseases
These can be summarized in the acronym, SCARED
The recognition that the peoples of the English-speaking Caribbean share a common identity, even with diversity has prompted persistent efforts at regional integration. However, reluctance among territories stem from feelings that cooperation may involve losing one’s national identity. Thus development efforts in the Caribbean operate within a context characterized by this tension between regionalism and globalisation.
- establishment of a federal state à la U.S.A
2. CARICOM – Caribbean Common Market (1973)
3. OECS – Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (1981)
4. ACS – Association of Caribbean States (1994)– the 4th largest trading bloc in the world comprising of the Caribbean region and Central and South America.
5. Free Trade of the Americas (FTAA) – This is proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce trade barriers among all nations of the Western Hemisphere with the exception of Cuba
6. CSME (1989) – Caribbean Single Market and Economy
This body concerns itself with the removal of barriers to trade and travel
Pan Africanism is a socio-political worldview, philosophy and movement which seeks to unify native Africans and those of African heritage into the ‘global African community’. It calls for a politically and economically united Africa or unity of African people. It also seeks to educate Africans about their glorious history, common struggles as well as to advocate for equal rights for all.
This movement involved the French colonies of Africa and the Caribbean which called on all people of African origin to celebrate their blackness. Started by intellectuals in Paris who were opposed to a new French policy of total assimilation of all colonies. Its main proponents included Matinicans , AimeCesaire and Leopold Senghor was was president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980. Much disparity in views persisted in how and by what means liberation should come about. However there exists a plethora of writings in philosophy, politics, history and art that celebrates this popular movement.
Several intellectual works by West Indian historians have sought to debunk certain myths about the indigenous population – that they were extremely naïve and docile(Arawaks) or war-like(Caribs) or that they have been completely wiped out with the remaining few not of ‘pure’ Amerindian ancestry, or that they have no history and thus have had little effect on Caribbean history, society and culture.
In Guyana, Dominica and Belize there have been struggles to correct injustices against Amerindians with reference to land rights, social economic and political marginalisation as well as a thrust to link to indigenous people in the region and around the world to strengthen their legacy.
The media is a main conduit of information around the world. It collectively refers to the collection and transmission of data through magazines, phono-recordings, films, print and all electronic media.
The global knowledge and technological development has been facilitated by the mass media, especially the electronic media at the end of the twentieth century. The last decade is often referred to as the information age.
The media has three main functions
For people to make informed choices adequate information needs to reach people in a timely manner. These choices may range from purchasing a product, planning a project, preserving the environment, protecting oneself from hazards as well as selecting people to positions of leadership. However the information that ultimately reaches the public is a function of several factors including:
For the media to perform their tasks effectively certain rights must be observed
A properly functioning media should be able to increase the accountability of both big businesses and government through monitoring and reputational penalties while allowing customers to make more informed decisions.
Factors influencing the independence of the media include
Is the major regional institution for training media professionals. However several professionals in the region have been trained in the US and the UK and this affects the way news is conceived, packaged and distributed vis a vis, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube etc.(e.g. U-report on TV6)
For many years, women in the Caribbean were not given equal opportunities in the pursuit of employment or education. During the last two decades of the twentieth century, women in the Caribbean experienced significant increases in opportunities. Women are using their education to move into many management positions, traditionally dominated by men. Issues still arise with reference to equal pay and promotion
These people must be protected from ageist practices some of which include: