Our Solar System How Can Technology Be Used to Observe Distant Objects in Space?
If you looked up at the night sky what would you see? Stars The Moon Planets
What can help us see details of objects in the night sky? A Telescope Telescopes make distant objects appear larger, brighter, and sharper. Warning: Never look directly at the Sun with a telescope!!!!! When you make an object appear larger, you magnify it.
Different Types of Telescopes • Optical Telescopes: • Magnifies distant objects by collecting light. • Reflecting telescopes use mirrors. • Refracting telescopes use lenses. • Radio Telescopes: • Collect Radio waves instead of light.
The Hubble • The Hubble Space telescope is different from other telescopes because it is in space. • It moves around the earth every 97 minutes. • It is the size of a school bus. • It gives scientist a clearer undistorted view of distant regions of space.
The Ant Nebula, 3,000 and 6,000 light years from Earth
A ring of comet-shaped objects flying away from a dying star. Eskimo is 5,000 light years from Earth
The Cone Nebula. The part pictured here is 2.5 light years in length (the equivalent of 23 million return trips to the Moon)
The Perfect Storm, a small region in the Swan Nebula, 5,500 light years away
Starry Night, so named because it reminded astronomers of the Van Gogh painting. It is a halo of light around a star in the Milky Way
The glowering eyes from 114 million light years away are the swirling cores of two merging galaxies
The Trifid Nebula. A 'stellar nursery', 9,000 light years from here. It is where new stars are being born
Space Probes • Space probes: • are spacecraft that gather data. • do not carry people. • take pictures and get information. • use radio signals to send it back to Earth. • Space probes have landed on Mercury. Venus, Mars, and the Moon. • They have flown close to every planet in our solar system except for the dwarf planet Pluto.
Summarize Telescopes are tools that make distant objects appear larger, brighter, and sharper so they can be seen more clearly Optical telescopes magnify distant objects by collecting Light. Radio Telescopes collect radio waves. Technology helps Scientist learn about Earth and the things around it. The Hubble telescope is in space. It helps scientist to clearly see objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere. Space Probes are unmanned spacecraft that gather data and takes pictures to send back to Earth using radio signals.
Our Solar System What is the solar system?
The Sun and Planets • The solar system is made up: • the Sun, • orbiting planets, • their moons, • and other objects around the sun.
Planets • Planets are large bodies of rock or gas in space that moves around a star. • A planet does not produce its own light. • We are able to see planets in the night sky when light from the Sun reflects off them. • Planets orbit, or move around the sun. • Planets in our solar system are categorized into two groups. Inner and outer planets.
Inner Planets Outer Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune Close to the Sun Hot Made of Rock Smaller Few Moons No Rings Shorter orbits Orbit the Sun Farther from the Sun Cold and dark Made of Gas Large Many Moons Many Rings Longer orbits
Planets in Motion • As planets orbit the Sun the also rotate or spin on an imaginary line called an axis. • Planets closer to the Sun orbit the Sun more quickly than those further away. • The time it takes a planet to orbit around the Sun is a year. • It takes the Earth 365 days to orbit the Sun. • Planets rotate at various speeds. • http://www.eduplace.com/science/hmsc/ga/content/etransparencies/4/fscommand/4_973033_4.pdf
Stars • Stars are hot balls of gas. • They give off their own light. • They do not orbit or move around in a path. • There are many more stars than planets in our galaxy, but the Sun is the only star in our Solar System. • Stars vary in size, color, and brightness.
Stars and Planets Planets Stars Made of rock or gas Do not give off own light Orbit around stars Hot balls of gas Give off own light Do not orbit Are part of our galaxy
Moons • A moon is a small, rounded body in orbit around a planet. • A moon does not produce its own light. It reflects light from the sun. • Most planets have at least one moon.
Summarize Inner Planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars – smaller, closer, hotter, rock, few moons, no rings, orbit Sun. Outer Planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune – Large, far, cold and dark, gas, many moons, many rings, orbit Sun. The solar system is made up of the Sun, Orbiting planets, their moons, and other objects traveling around the Sun. The Sun: is a star: A star is hot ball of gas that gives off its own light. The Sun is the Center of the Solar System. • Moons are small, rounded bodies in orbit around a planets.
Our Solar System What is the relative order of the planets from the Sun and what are their relative sizes?
Relative OrderMy Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nuts! • My: Mercury • Very: Venus • Educated: Earth • Mother: Mars • Just: Jupiter • Served: Saturn • Us: Uranus • Nuts: Neptune
Relative Size • Largest to Smallest • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury • http://www.brevardastro.org/albums/UniverseScale/photo1.html
Summarize Relative Order and Size Order from the Sun: My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nuts! Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Largest to smallest Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury
Cycles and Patterns in Space Astronomy
What Causes Day and Night? • Does the Sun move around the Earth? • NO • Then why does the Sun appear to rise in the east, climb across the sky, then set to the west? • Because the Earth rotates. • To rotate is to turn on an imaginary line, called an axis, through the center of an object. • It takes Earth 24 hours to rotate one time which is one day.
What Causes Day and Night? • The Earth is a sphere. • Only halfof it receives light and heat from the Sun at any given time. • Because Earth rotates, the half facing the Sun has day light and the half that faces away from the has night. • The Sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west.
What Causes Day and Night? • As Earth rotates, the position of the Sun changes causing the angle at which sunlight strikes the Earth to change. • The changing angle of sunlight causes shadows to change throughout the day. • When the Sun is low in the sky, shadows are long. • When the Sun is high in the sky shadows are short.
What Causes Day and Night? Night Day
Summarize Earth rotates on its axis, causing the cycle of day and night. The Sun appears to rise in the Eastand move across the sky, and then set in the West. What causes Day and Night. The Sun strikes the Earth at different angles causing the length and angle of shadows to change.
What Causes the Seasons? • Seasons are explained by another way that Earth moves through space. • Earth revolves or orbits around the sun in an elliptical pattern. • To move in a path around another object is to revolve. • It takes Earth 365 days or one year to revolve around the Sun once.
What Causes the Seasons? • Earth’s axis is tilted compared to its orbital path. • This means that the Sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface at a different angles at different times of the year. • The tilt causes the Earth’s seasons to change. • A season is one of the four parts of the year • – Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter.
What Causes the Seasons? • The equator is an imaginary line that divides the Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres. • During our summer the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun. • During our winter the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun.
What Causes the Seasons? • It is warmer during the summer because: • In June, the Northern Hemisphere tilts toward the Sun. • The sunlight shines more directly on the Northern Hemisphere. • This makes the Sun appear high in the sky. • The sun rises earlier and sets later so the days are longer.
What Causes the Seasons? • It is cooler during the winter because: • In December, the Northern Hemisphere tilts away from the Sun. • The sunlight shines less directly on the Northern Hemisphere. • The sun rises later and sets earlier so the days are shorter. • The Sun is lower in the sky.
Summarize Earth revolves around the Sun once a year. Earth’s axis is tilted. so each hemisphere leans toward the Sun during summer and away from the Sun in winter. The Sun appears to rise higher in the sky in summer than in winter. What Causes the Seasons? Daylight lasts longer in summer than in winter The changing amounts of sunlight throughout the year cause seasonal changes in the weather.
What are phases of the moon? • The moon is a sphere of rock that revolves around Earth once very 27 ½ Earth days. • As it revolves the moon also rotates once on its axis in the same amount of time. As a result: • the same side of the Moon, the near side, always faces the Earth. • The moon does not make its own light. • Itreflects light from the Sun.