Day 38-39 Objectives • Analyze the political and religious causes of the English Civil War • Analyze the mistakes of Charles I that spark the war • Identify the enemies in the English Civil War • Analyze the political and religious effects of the end of the Civil War
The Return of Stuart Dynasty • Charles I’s son • “Restoration” • 1660-1685 = “eh” • Anglican Church forced on the English • Dissolves Parliament from 1681-1685
Justice for Charles I • King Charles II gives amnesty to Puritans who killed his dad • But 4 executed for Regicide, including Cromwell…
Issues under Charles II • What is Parliament’s fear w/Charles II and JAMES II? • Catholic Dynasty retakes the throne…. • Many acts • Declaration of Indulgence • Test Act • Exclusion Crisis
Tories vs Whigs Whig Tory
James II 1685-1688 • Lil bro to Charles II • Dissolves Parliament!! • Parliament’s biggest fear with James II? • Open CATHOLIC • Puts Catholics in high positions
Parliament & Puritans = • James = Old Man • Next English Monarch is PROTESTANT Mary… • daughter of James II and his first wife • Problem = James marries 15 y/o Italian Mary of Modena and wants more kids with his 2nd CATHOLIC wife
Oh $#!%!!! • James II’s Catholic wife has a son…who is now… • heir to throne!!!! • Not Protestant Mary • What will Parliament do?
Parliament’s Solution!! • Just like Gladiator • Maximus plot over Comodus
Coup d’etat on James II = GLORIOUS REVOLUTION • William & Mary allowed to invade England in 1688-89 • James II flees to France
Glorious Revolution • Parliament declares throne vacant • Crown then offered to William and Mary in 1689…but what do they have to do? • Deal made with Parliament
The Deal • W & M must recognize… • English Bill of Rights (1689) • Who wins? • Parliament!!!
In England, who gives the monarch consent to rule? • Parliament! • It showed it can hire and fire a king!!! • Divine Right theory of kingship is squashed in England • Who has more power now? • Parliament!!!!
English Bill of Rights • Creates what form of gov?? • Constitutional (Limited) Monarchy • Gov where Constitution or legislative body (Parliament) limits a monarch’s power
Partitioning of Power • Parliament independently shares power with the monarchy • Parliament must meet at least every 3 Years • Parliament… • Makes laws • Levies taxes • Monarchy cannot… • raise standing army w/o consent of Parliament • levy taxes w/o consent of Parliament • Parliamentary seatsand debates = Free from Royal interference • Catholics eventually banned from the throne
English Bill of Rights = Civil Rights for Citizens • Petition the Gov • Keep arms • Trial by Jury • No excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishment • Writ of habeas corpus – can’t be held in prison without being charged with specific crime
Toleration Act of 1689 • Religious Freedom extended only to… • Protestants • Catholics excluded • Religious persecution over in England
Big Picture • From 1540 to 1680, England goes from ________________ to ________________ or ________________ • England = 1st Western European country to follow this story. Others will follow… Absolutism Constitutionalism Democracy
England vs France in the 1600s • You now have both stories!!