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Europeans in the history of the world. The place of Europe in populating the earth. History of Migratory Movements in Europe. Peopling North America: Population Movements & Migration

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Europeans in the history of the world
Europeans in the history of the world

The place of Europe in populating the earth

History of migratory movements in europe
History of MigratoryMovements in Europe

Peopling North America:

Population Movements & Migration

European migration across the Atlantic, beginning in the late fifteenth century, was not an anomaly within the European framework. For centuries prior to their arrival in the New World, Europeans had participated in extensive migrations throughout their continent and Asia. They were a mobile people, accustomed to the concepts of movement and migration. In many ways, the initial arrival in the New World by the Europeans and the advent of trans-Atlantic migration served to extend the migratory patterns that were already present in European society.

The place of europe in populating the earth
The place of Europe in populating the Earth

  • Introduction

    • SinceAncientGreece to the mid 18th c.,

      European population 40 -140 m (x3.5) vs.

      World population 230 - 650 m (x2.8)

    • From the 19th c.

      European population increasesconsiderably

      greatmigratoryflows of people

I. Whatwas the role of Europe in populating the Earth

fromAntiquity to the 19th century?

A regular phases of demographic expansion explain the successive migrations
A. Regular phases of demographic expansion explain the successive migrations

1st phase
1st Phase

1. The colonization of the Mediterranean basin in AncientGreece and Rome

a. Role of the Greeksaround the Mediterraneansea (likefrogsaround a pond) : transferring of the city elsewhere(e.g. Nice and Agde)

B role of the romans conquests in the west and east and creation of colonies e g nimes arles orange
b. Role of the Romans: conquests in the West and East and creation of colonies (e.g; Nimes, Arles, Orange)

2 nd phase
2nd Phase

2. End of Ancient World - 1000 A.D. new population movementsshake Europe beforeitbeginsexpandingagain in the Mediterranean

A barbarian invasions lead to the fall of the roman empire
a. Barbarian invasions lead to the fall of the Roman Empire

B advances of islam from the 8th c a d hold back christianity
b. Advances of Islam, from the 8th c. A.D. hold back Christianity

3rd phase
3rd Phase

3. 11th and 13th centuries:

most important Europeanmovementsoccurwhendemographicgrowthreappears

Crusadesand Reconquista

Crusadesand Reconquista

4th phase
4th Phase

4. 14th Century: Black Plagueravages Europe between 1348 and 1352 marks a break by dramaticallyslowing down the fragile growth 25 M dead – 1/3 of the population

5th phase
5th Phase

5. Great discoveries of the Renaissance to the Colonization of other continents

Discovery of America (15th century)

colonies in NorthAmerica, Asia and Africa

European colonization several consequences
EuropeanColonization: severalconsequences

  • Setting up of colonies and slave trade

  • Building of Empires and civilizations (15th-19th C)

  • Exploitation of resources

  • Imposinglanguages, religion

  • Coherentsocietiesformprogressivelydetachthemselvesfrom the mother country

Pull factors of the new world
Pull Factors of the New World

  • Video: Opportunity Beckoned

  • In the 19th century, the colonization of Africa and Asia has a political aspect and responds to an increasedneed for land due to the rapiddemographicgrowthsince the end of the 18th century.

B how can we explain this growth
B. How canweexplainthisgrowth?

  • For a long period, limitedgrowth (textbook, p. 12/13)

  • Traditionaldemocraticregimecharacterized by a highmortality rate (famine, war, epidemics) and a highbirth rate to compensate

Change in 18th century decrease in mortality rate
Change in 18th century: decrease in mortality rate

  • agricultural technologyreducing famines

  • progress in hygieneand medicinewhichreduce the number of epidemics

Whydid population growth in the world and particularly in Europe increasesorapidly in the 19th century?

  • Population Growth

Since the birth rate remainshigh, demographicgrowthishigh

World population growth 1700 1900
World Population Growth 1700-1900

Source: Population et société, n°394, octobre 2003

Key term malthus malthusian malthusianism
Key term: malthus = malthusian, malthusianism


demographicbehaviourwhichaims to limit population growth due to fear of scarcity of resources/wealth to beshared

Malthus (English scholar) observed that sooner or later population will be checked by famine and disease.

That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence, That population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase (and vice versa)

Blog for history geography
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