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Social Psychology. Social Psychology is a broad field devoted to studying:. how people relate to each other the development and expression of attitudes people’s attributions about their own behavior and that of others

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slide3
how people relate to each other

the development and expression of attitudes

people’s attributions about their own behavior and that of others

the reasons why people engage in both prosocial and antisocial behavior

how the presence and actions of others influences the way people behave

slide4
An attitude is a set of beliefs and feelings

One reason that attitudes are difficult to change is due to the Cognitive Dissonance Theory.

People are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors, and when they do not, they experience unpleasant mental tension (dissonance).

social thinking
Social Thinking
  • Attribution Theory
    • tendency to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either
  • the situation or…
  • the person’s disposition
social thinking1
Social Thinking
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
    • when explaining another’s behavior, we tend to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
social thinking2
Tolerant reaction

(proceed cautiously, allow

driver a wide berth)

Situational attribution

“Maybe that driver is ill.”

Negative behavior

Unfavorable reaction

(Speed up and race past the

other driver, craning to give

them a dirty look)

Dispositional attribution

“Crazy driver!”

Social Thinking
  • How we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it
attribution
Attribution

Interestingly, people do more the opposite when attributing successes or failures to themselves (we blame the situation more than ourselves).

social thinking3
Internal

attitudes

External

influences

Behavior

Social Thinking
  • Our behavior is affected by our inner attitudes as well as by external social influences
jesse tells you that he got a perfect score on his psychology test
Jesse tells you that he got a perfect score on his psychology test ……

Because Jesse is very good at psychology

Because the psychology test was easy

Jesse has always been good at psychology

Jesse just studied a lot for this particular psychology test

Mr. Baker is an easy psychology teacher

Mr. Baker is a tough psychology teacher who just happened to give one easy test

social thinking some concepts
Social Thinking – Some Concepts
    • Our Attitudes often direct our behavior but sometimes behavior shapes our attitudes
  • Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
    • tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
  • “Doing Becomes Believing”
group pressure
Group Pressure
  • Social Influence..
social influence
Social Influence
  • Normative Social Influence
    • influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
  • Leads to……Conformity
    • adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
social influence concepts
Social Influence - concepts
  • Informational Social Influence
    • influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality
  • …Leads To Norms
    • an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
    • prescribes “proper” behavior
social influence1
3

1

2

Standard lines

Comparison lines

Social Influence

Asch Conformity Experiment

click above for a clip!

social influence2
50

40

30

20

10

0

Percentage of

conformity

to confederates’

wrong answers

Difficult judgments

Easy judgments

High

Low

Importance

Slide 1

Slide 2

Social Influence
  • Participants judged which person in Slide 2 was the same as the person in Slide 1
obedience
Obedience
  • Stanley Milgram: People conform, but will they simply obey others?

65% of Milgram’s “teachers” did!

social influence3
That’s Almost 70%!

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Percentage

of subjects

who obeyed

experimenter

The majority of

subjects continued

to obey to the end

Slight

(15-60)

Moderate

(75-120)

Strong

(135-180)

Very

strong

(195-240)

Intense

(255-300)

Extreme

intensity

(315-360)

Danger

severe

(375-420)

XXX

(435-450)

Shock levels in volts

Social Influence
  • Milgram’s experiment
obedience is higher when
Obedience is higher when…
  • Person giving the orders is perceived as a legit Authority figure. (prof., cop, etc)
  • “orderer” supported by a prestigious institute (Yale, Government, etc)
  • Victim is “depersonalized” or distant (no name, in another room, etc)
  • No role models for defiance
social influence somebody s watching me
Social Influence:somebody’s watching me…
  • Social Impairment
  • People tend to perform WORSE on difficult or new tasks in the presence of others
  • Social Facilitation
    • People tend to perform simple/well-learned tasks BETTER in the presence of others
social facilitation
Home Advantage in Major Team Sports

Sport Games Home Team

Studied Winning

Percentage

Baseball 23,034 53.5%

Football 2,592 57.3

Ice hockey 4,322 61.1

Basketball 13,596 64.4

Soccer 37,202 69.0

Social Facilitation
social influence somebody s helping me
Social Influence:somebody’s helping me…
  • Social Loafing
    • tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
deindividuation
Deindividuation
  • The loss of self awareness and self restrain occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
social relations
90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Percentage

attempting

to help

1 2 3 4

Number of others

presumed available to help

Social Relations
  • Bystander Effect
    • tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social influence4
Social Influence

Group Polarization

enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group (like AA or KKK) – Yeah! I Agree!

social influence5
+4

+3

+2

+1

0

-1

-2

-3

-4

High

High-prejudice

groups

Prejudice

Low-prejudice

groups

Low

Before discussion

After discussion

Social Influence
  • If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions
slide30
Groupthink
    • the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives (like shuttle disaster or bay of pigs) – Who am I to “rock the boat”? I just want to get out of this meeting…
slide31
The tendency for people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them is called the false consensus effect.I thought everyone was against the death penalty…
slide32
IE. If Brianna hates Psychology, she assumes that most people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Shavanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.
social influence6
Social Influence

Percentage agreeing

“The activities of married women

are best confined to home and family”

  • Gender Role
    • a set of expected behaviors for males and for females

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Percentage

Men

Women

1967 ‘71 ‘75 ‘79 ‘83 ‘87 ‘91 ‘95

Year

social relations why do we treat each other differently
Social Relations – why do we treat each other differently?
  • Prejudice
    • an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members
    • involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
  • Stereotype
    • a generalized (often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
social influences
Social Influences
  • Culture
    • enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people
    • transmitted from one generation to the next
  • Personal Space
    • buffer zone we like to

maintain around our bodies

social relations why prejudice social bias
Social Relations – why prejudice & social bias?
  • Ingroup Bias
    • tendency to favor one’s own group
  • Scapegoat Theory
    • theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
  • Just-World Phenomenon
    • tendency of people to believe the world is just
    • people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
social relations1
90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Would you vote for

a woman president?

Do whites have a right

to keep minorities out of

their neighborhoods?

1936 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995

Year

Social Relations
  • Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice

Percentage

answering yes

slide38
Preconceived ideas can affect the way someone acts towards another person.
  • Our expectations of behavior can be influenced as well. This is called the self-fulfilling prophecy.
social relations2
Social Relations
  • Aggression
    • any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
  • Frustration-Aggression Principle
    • principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression
why are we aggressive
Why are we aggressive?
  • Genetics – Some people are born to be aggresive
  • Neural and Biological – Your neural system facilitates aggression – chemicals in your blood stream can change aggression..
  • What happens if the frontal lobes get damaged?
social relations3
8.0

7.5

7.0

6.5

6.0

Murders

and rapes

per day in

Houston, Texas

40-68 69-78 79-85 86-91 92-99

Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit

Social Relations
  • Is there a CORRELATION BETWEEN WEATHER AND AGGRESSION?
social relations4
Social Relations
  • Conflict
    • perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
  • Social Trap
    • a situation in which the conflicting parties, pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
  • (overfishing, near destruction of the buffalo, rainforest logging)
social relations conflict reduction
Social Relations – conflict reduction
  • Social Exchange Theory
    • the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
  • Superordinate Goals
    • shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
social relations conflict reduction among nations
Social Relations – conflict reduction among nations
  • Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-reduction (GRIT)
    • a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
      • one side announces recognition of mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act
      • opens door for reciprocation by other party
social relations what attracts us to others
Social Relations- What attracts us to others?
  • Proximity
    • mere exposure effect- repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
  • Physical Attractiveness
    • youthfulness may be associated with health and fertility
  • Similarity
    • friends share common attitudes, beliefs, interests
attractiveness
Attractiveness
  • Worldwide, men prefer youth and health, women prefer resources and social status
social relations5
Social Relations
  • Passionate Love
    • an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another
    • usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
  • Companionate Love
    • deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
the key to lasting and satisfying relationships
The key to lasting and satisfying relationships
  • Equity
    • a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
  • Self-disclosure
    • revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
  • Altruism
    • unselfish regard for the welfare of others
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