Law of Contrariness "Our chief want in life is somebody who shall make us do what we can . Having found them, we shall then hate them for it." Ralph Waldo Emerson. Tyler’s Four Questions. Ralph Tyler (1971) concluded that when
Ralph Tyler (1971) concluded that when
developing curriculum, planning instruction,
and assessing learning, there are four
(2) What experiences are necessary to achieve the purpose?
(3) How do you organize the experiences into meaningful learning?
(4) What evidence is available to determine if you accomplished the purpose?
Summarized (Jean Piaget)
Perceptions are formed as one “experiences” the world.
One’s ability to perceive new information is essential to memory.
. . . And, without memory or the ability to remember one cannot form concepts, e.g., “mental pictures” about how things work.
Cognitive Schemata are bundles or “chunks” of knowledge and understanding into which new data (stimuli) are “integrated” as they are received from the environment (i.e., when new experiences occur).
***Note: Schemata is plural and Schema is singular
(sensing) (encoding) (learning)
As new environmental stimuli are received, pre-existing cognitive schemata are changed or adapted to “accommodate” the stimuli
As new environmental stimuli are received, the stimuli are changed or “adapted” to “fit” pre-existing cognitive schemata
A cognitive balance between accommodation and assimilation
of learning” occurring?
Carroll’s Five Variables for Learning
The Carroll model: A 25-year retrospective and prospective view (Carroll, 1989).
A student’s aptitude determines the amount of time one needs to learn a given task, unit of instruction, or curriculum to an acceptable criterion of mastery under optimal conditions of instruction and student motivation.
The amount of time allowed for learning, for example, by a school schedule, a course, or a program.
The time and effort that a student is willing to spend on the learning; in this sense, it becomes an operational definition of motivation for learning.
The learners must be clearly told what they are to learn (i.e., measurable instructional objectives).
They must be put into adequate contact with learning materials, and the steps in learning must be carefully planned and ordered.
If these factors are less than optimal, the time needed for learning is increased, and the quality of learning may be less than optimal.
This includes language comprehension as well as the learners’ ability to figure out for themselves what the learning task is and how to go about learning it.
Desired Current An
Status of -- Status of = Educational
Learners Learners Need
Philosophy of Education
Psychology of LearningRalph W. Tyler’s Legacy: The Goal-Attainment Model