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Law of Contrariness "Our chief want in life is somebody who shall make us do what we can . Having found them, we shall then hate them for it." Ralph Waldo Emerson. Tyler’s Four Questions. Ralph Tyler (1971) concluded that when

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Law of Contrariness"Our chief want in life is somebody who shall make us do what we can. Having found them, we shall then hate them for it." Ralph Waldo Emerson
tyler s four questions
Tyler’s Four Questions

Ralph Tyler (1971) concluded that when

developing curriculum, planning instruction,

and assessing learning, there are four

primary questions:

  • What is the purpose of the lesson?

(2) What experiences are necessary to achieve the purpose?

(3) How do you organize the experiences into meaningful learning?

(4) What evidence is available to determine if you accomplished the purpose?

selected principles of learning constructivism

Selected Principles of Learning:Constructivism

Piagetian Theory—

Summarized (Jean Piaget)

humans are sensing beings
Humans perceive “stimuli” (information) from the environment through their five senses

Seeing (visual)

Hearing (auditory)

Touching (tactile; kinesthetic)

Smelling

Tasting

Humans are “Sensing” Beings
perceptions
Perceptions

Perceptions are formed as one “experiences” the world.

memory
Memory

One’s ability to perceive new information is essential to memory.

concepts
Concepts

. . . And, without memory or the ability to remember one cannot form concepts, e.g., “mental pictures” about how things work.

concept formations cognitive schemata
“Concept Formations” = Cognitive Schemata

Cognitive Schemata are bundles or “chunks” of knowledge and understanding into which new data (stimuli) are “integrated” as they are received from the environment (i.e., when new experiences occur).

  • Cognitive “Hooks” or “Scaffolds”

***Note: Schemata is plural and Schema is singular

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Cognitive schemata are essential for “permanent learning” to occur, and for higher order learning and thinking to take place.
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Perception >>>> Memory >>>> Concept Formation

(sensing) (encoding) (learning)

accommodation
Accommodation

As new environmental stimuli are received, pre-existing cognitive schemata are changed or adapted to “accommodate” the stimuli

assimilation
Assimilation

As new environmental stimuli are received, the stimuli are changed or “adapted” to “fit” pre-existing cognitive schemata

equilibrium
Equilibrium

A cognitive balance between accommodation and assimilation

see kolb s experiential learning model handout
See Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model(Handout)
  • When are perceptions formed?
  • When is accommodation and assimilation occurring?
  • When is “transfer

of learning” occurring?

other selected principles of learning

Other Selected Principles of Learning

Carroll’s Five Variables for Learning

The Carroll model: A 25-year retrospective and prospective view (Carroll, 1989).

aptitude

Aptitude

A student’s aptitude determines the amount of time one needs to learn a given task, unit of instruction, or curriculum to an acceptable criterion of mastery under optimal conditions of instruction and student motivation.

opportunity to learn
Opportunity to Learn

The amount of time allowed for learning, for example, by a school schedule, a course, or a program.

perseverance

Perseverance

The time and effort that a student is willing to spend on the learning; in this sense, it becomes an operational definition of motivation for learning.

quality of instruction

Quality of Instruction

The learners must be clearly told what they are to learn (i.e., measurable instructional objectives).

They must be put into adequate contact with learning materials, and the steps in learning must be carefully planned and ordered.

quality of instruction cont d

Quality of Instruction (cont’d)

If these factors are less than optimal, the time needed for learning is increased, and the quality of learning may be less than optimal.

ability to understand instruction
Ability to Understand Instruction

This includes language comprehension as well as the learners’ ability to figure out for themselves what the learning task is and how to go about learning it.

the popham model determining educational needs
THE POPHAM MODEL: Determining Educational Needs…

Desired Current An

Status of -- Status of = Educational

Learners Learners Need

measurable instructional objectives that are stated in behavioral terms
Measurable Instructional Objectivesthat are stated in Behavioral Terms
  • What the student will be able to do as a result of the instruction (TSWBAT)?
  • More directly, what the student will be able to do on Friday that they could not do on Monday?
mager s rules for writing measurable instructional objectives
Mager’s Rules for Writing Measurable Instructional Objectives
  • 1) Identify and Name the Student Behavior Sought
  • 2) Define any Important Conditions Under Which the Behavior is to Occur
  • 3) Define a Level of Acceptable Performance
  • Specify the BEHAVIOR, the CONDITION, and the DEGREE of acceptable performance when writing the objective.
action verbs
ACTION VERBS
  • Use words that describe the student behavior that is to be demonstrated (observed).
  • The Action Verb should represent one of the six levels of the Cognitive Domain.
bloom s taxonomy a vocabulary for writing objectives
BLOOM’S TAXONOMY: A VOCABULARY FOR WRITING OBJECTIVES
  • Cognitive Domain
  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation
examples of action verb use
VAGUE

The student will be

able to . . .

do

know

understand . . .

BETTER

The student will be

able to . . .

list

compare

demonstrate

summarize

prepare

critique . . .

EXAMPLES OF ACTION VERB USE
ralph w tyler s legacy the goal attainment model
Goal-Sources

Student

Society

Subject Matter

Goal-Screens

Philosophy of Education

Psychology of Learning

Ralph W. Tyler’s Legacy: The Goal-Attainment Model
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