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Reading Assessment and Instruction. Using Levels of Functioning to Assess Reading and Determine Instructional Expectations. Factors in Deciding How to Teach Reading. Student attitude, energy, and motivation Effectiveness of previous approaches

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Reading assessment and instruction

Reading Assessment and Instruction

Using Levels of Functioning to Assess Reading and Determine Instructional Expectations

Factors in deciding how to teach reading
Factors in Deciding How to Teach Reading

Student attitude, energy, and motivation

Effectiveness of previous approaches

Clear diagnostic information of specific reading problems (of the individual)

Teacher knowledge of reading strategies

Matching appropriate reading program with the student.

Functioning levels operationalized for reading
Functioning Levels Operationalized for Reading

Independent: >98% word recognition + >90% comprehension. Thumbnail: @95% overall

Instructional: 95% word rec. and >75% comprehension. Thumbnail: @ 80 - 90% overall

Frustration: <90% word rec. and <50% comprehension. Thumbnail:<80 % overall

Hierarchy of instruction
Hierarchy of Instruction

Reading for accuracy

Reading for fluency

Strands of reading curriculum
Strands of Reading Curriculum

word attack

word recognition

reading comprehension

Word attack
Word Attack


Analysis of words

Represent discrete oral sounds associated with letters or groups of letters

Scope and Sequence

Should be developed according to observed needs of the student and/or in relationship to curriculum

Major Approaches


Structural Analysis

Performance measures
Performance Measures

Isolated sounds - 70 spm @ 98%accuracy

Words in a list - 80 wpm @ 98% accuracy

Words in text - 100 wpm @ 98% accuracy

Sequence of fluency measures
Sequence of Fluency Measures

Sounds in isolation

Saying nonsense words

Saying phonetically regular words

Oral reading from text

Isolated prefixes and suffixes

endings, prefixes , & suffixes with nonsense roots

Structural analysis of words

Word attack levels of assessment
Word Attack Levels of Assessment


Associate letters with sounds

Recognize beginnings and endings


Apply rules for decoding

familiar words

unfamiliar words

Error analysis
Error Analysis


reproduction errors

Miscue analysis

errors in grammar and/or meaning

Specific word attack errors

based on what has been taught

Word recognition
Word Recognition


treating a group of letters as a single unit

Scope and sequence

Curriculum types



Major Approaches

Student-specific words in the curriculum

Overall fluency

Performance measures1
Performance Measures

Latency and rate

words in isolation

Passages in text

Levels of assessment
Levels of Assessment

Associate letters in sequence as words

95% accuracy

Do so to automaticity

95% fluency

Reading comprehension
Reading Comprehension


ability to obtain meaning from print.

Scope and Sequence

Word attack and recognition are important prerequisites

Literal, inferential, and critical comprehension

Little consensus on what skills to teach and in what sequence

Performance measures of reading comprehension
Performance Measures of Reading Comprehension

Comprehension is measured indirectly:

that is, they are inferential

Often measurements of RC are more accurately influenced by




Literary skills

Prior Knowledge

Language influences on reading comprehension
Language Influences on Reading Comprehension

To comprehend text requires

knowledge of vocabulary (semantics) and grammar (syntax)

the student must know what words mean

apart and in conjunction with other words

language competence of the learner must match the language demands of the text

Reading comprehension cannot exceed general language competence.

Cognition reasoning influences on reading comprehension
Cognition/reasoning Influences on Reading Comprehension


prediction requires going beyond information presented

extrapolationnreqires prediction plus making unstated conclusions

Higher order skills

summarize, analyze, synthesize

Memory influences on reading comprehension
Memory Influences on Reading Comprehension

Immediate or long term recall/retell

Recognition of main ideas or details

Literary skills influences on reading comprehension
Literary Skills Influences on Reading Comprehension

Recognition of literary devices

satire, irony, sarcasm

similes, metaphors


literary devices


Influence of prior knowledge on reading comprehension
Influence of Prior Knowledge on Reading Comprehension

Students can comprehend new material if it covers something they already know

New material that covers something unexperienced may be more difficult

Reading assessment and instruction

Data collection of performance results

Display of data

Based on extant curricula

Guidelines for measuring reading comprehension
Guidelines for Measuring Reading Comprehension

Measures should match vocabulary and syntax of the material covered

Assessments should measure comprehension (not analysis, synthesis, or evaluation)

Assessment should measure literal comprehension

Assessment should allow the student to see the passages to avoid recall/memory influences

Assessment of comprehension should account for prior knowledge

pretest or provide relevant background information

Common performance measures of reading comprehension
Common Performance Measures of Reading Comprehension

Sentence verification tests

Student retelling

Time oral reading

Cloze procedures

Text comprehension quesitons

Sentence verification tests prompted written recall
Sentence verification tests (Prompted Written Recall)

A group of sentences

drawn from a passage

with changed meaning


Student reads and answers (from memory) whether information in sentences was part of the original passage or is the same in meaning.

>85% = Independent, 75-85% = Instructional, <65% = Frustration

Student retelling
Student retelling

Students read and paraphrase as they go along

Students read entire passage and paraphrase at the end

Procedures for scoring include

Percent total words retold per words in the passage

Percent content words retold per content words in the passage

Timed oral reading
Timed Oral Reading

Fluency of reading is highly associated with reading comprehension

Measure words read correctly per total words read

Correct words per minute

See Salvia and Hughes (1990) for detailed procedures

Cloze procedures
Cloze Procedures

Choose a grade level passage of 250 words

Provide a 25-word lead-in paragraph/passage for reading sense

Delete every 5th word and replace with a blank (@ 15 spaces each)

Provide a guided pre-sample for understanding

Make the procedure untimed

Cloze procedures1
Cloze Procedures

Student reads the passage and says or writes the missing words (spelling not a concern)

Exact correct words or close synonyms are accepted

>57% = Independent, 44-56% = instructional, <44% = frustration

Answering text questions
Answering Text Questions

5 - 10 questions at appropriate reading level

Use text explicit and implicit questions

>90% = Independent, 75-89% = Instructional, <75% = Frustration

Other common reading assessments
Other Common Reading Assessments

Informal Reading Inventories

Content Reading Inventories

Textual Reading/Study Strategies

Observation/Error analysis

A classroom informal reading inventory in the content area
A Classroom Informal Reading Inventory (In the Content Area)

Pick 20-25 words from 2 grade levels to the present (present to 2 grade levels above for potentially advanced readers) using appropriate subject matter texts.

Select passages of 200 -250 words from the same texts.

Construct 5 questions for each passage: include recall facts, inferential questions, and vocabulary definitions.

Observation error analysis
Observation/Error analysis

Checklists/Observational Instruments

Used to identify specific areas of difficulty

Error Analysis

Used for identifying common errors to target for instruction

Levels of assessment1
Levels of Assessment

Literal, inferential, and critical comprehension require different assessments

Beginning students should assessed for literal comprehension

Advance students can be assessed for higher levels of comprehension

Inferential comprehension requires students to analyze, synthesize and draw conclusions

Critical comprehension requires evaluation and judgments of the reading’s worth.

Diagnostic information assessment
Diagnostic Information Assessment

Compare reading proficiency of students in the class with target student

Important to determine proficiency on what the student can be expected to do.

Reading instruction for secondary students with mild disabilities

Reading Instruction for Secondary Students with Mild Disabilities

Strategies and Models

The reading process
The Reading Process Disabilities

Motivational Analysis

Vocabulary Development

Word Recognition,

Word Knowledge (Definition)

Teaching Comprehension

Strategic Reading

Strategic Teaching

Motivational analysis
Motivational Analysis Disabilities

Identify why student needs to read in your content area

Identify why student will read in your content area

Identify how student is convinced to read in your content area (primary and secondary reinforcers)

Attach reinforcers to reading activities

Word recognition for highly deficient readers
Word Recognition (for highly deficient readers) Disabilities

Identifying words

use of computer assisted instruction or flashcards

Word ID strategies (e.g., DISSECT)

Use word banks with motivational inventories (token reinforcement)

Word knowledge definition
Word Knowledge (Definition) Disabilities

Concept diagramming (mapping)

Computer-generated maps (e.g., Inspiration)

Finding synonyms,

Contextual analysis

Using Reference Sources

Morphemic Analysis

Understand the parts, understand the word

Strategic reading
Strategic Reading Disabilities

Study Strategies

Analyze sections of the text

Comprehension Strategies


Read the paragraph

Ask yourself what the paragraph is about

Put the main idea and two details in your own words.

Strategic teaching
Strategic Teaching Disabilities

Reciprocal Teaching

Direct Instruction

Adaptation Analysis

Reciprocal teaching
Reciprocal Teaching Disabilities





Direct instruction
Direct Instruction Disabilities

Structure the learning climate into predictable activities that provide

a high level of teacher-student, and student-student interaction

make efficient use of learned strategies

Teacher behaviors include



visual imagery

Adaptation analysis
Adaptation Analysis Disabilities


Reduce the expected amount of learning

Match textbooks to learning abilities

Enhance content through study guides

Provide technology accommodations

promote use of appropriate learning strategies

Writing samples
Writing samples Disabilities

10 minute probes

Story starters (pictures)

Calculate the words written and correct words written

correct = spelled correctly and appropriate mechanics

Determine % accuracy of writing sample.

Determine most appropriate writing goal

Writing sample 1 picture of a flying saucer circling a small town
Writing Sample 1: Picture of a flying saucer circling a small town

a green space man comes to boise. he kill boys and girls. there moms and dads are sad.

Writing sample 2 picture of a party
Writing Sample 2: Picture of a party small town

its a party and my friends come to my house. we dance and Ill have lotsa fun.

Sample 3 picture of skier with child
Sample 3: Picture of skier with child small town

my skisut is red. I go fast on hills. my sisters ski with me. its to cold to ski for a long time.

Reading comprehension sample 1
Reading Comprehension Sample 1 small town

In reading “Mary had a Little Lamb”

What do you think the teacher would say if Mary brought the lamb a second day?

Reading comprehension sample 2
Reading Comprehension Sample 2 small town

In reading “Mary had a Little Lamb”

How do you think Mary felt about her day at school?