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The American Revolution. Outbreak (April, 1775). Lexington Concord. Common Sense. Thomas Paine wrote: Wrong for a continent to be subservient to an island Wrong to be subservient to a king spilling their blood Independence is the sensible choice. Declaration of Independence.

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The American Revolution

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outbreak april 1775
Outbreak (April, 1775)
  • Lexington
  • Concord
common sense
Common Sense
  • Thomas Paine wrote:
    • Wrong for a continent to be subservient to an island
    • Wrong to be subservient to a king spilling their blood
    • Independence is the sensible choice
declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence
  • Written chiefly by Thomas Jefferson
  • Adopted 7/4/1776
  • Based on John Locke’s ideas
declaration of independence1
Declaration of Independence
  • Basic parts:
    • Philosophy of Government
    • List of grievances
    • Conclusion
declaration of independence2
Declaration of Independence
  • Basic parts:
    • Elevated the struggle into war for independence
    • Served as source of inspiration to others throughout the world
    • Inspired Americans to undertake movements for equality (long-term)
brief survey of the war
Brief Survey of the War
  • Battle of Bunker (Breeds!) Hill
brief survey of the war1
Brief Survey of the War
  • American invasion of Canada (1775-1776)
  • British Success in the Middle States: NY, PA (1776-1777)
brief survey of the war2
Brief Survey of the War
  • KEY American Victory at Saratoga, NY (1777)
brief survey of the war3
Brief Survey of the War
  • American Suffering at Valley Forge (1778-1779)
brief survey of the war4
Brief Survey of the War
  • American victory in the Northwest Territory (1778-1779)

Fort Vincennes

brief survey of the war5
Brief Survey of the War
  • War in the South (1778-1781)

Banastre Tarleton"

Battle of Camden

brief survey of the war6
Brief Survey of the War
  • Yorktown: Final American/French Victory (1781)
reasons for american victory
Reasons for American Victory
  • American fighting on their own soil, British/Hessians 3000 miles from home
  • Americans superior wilderness fighters
  • American leadership: George Washington, George Rogers Clark, Nathanael Greene, John Paul Jones…
reasons for american victory1
Reasons for American Victory
  • British officers overconfident or incompetent
  • Foreign volunteers aided America: Marquis de Lafayette, Baron de Kalb, Baron von Steuben, Count Pulaski, Thaddeus Kosciusko
reasons for american victory2
Reasons for American Victory
  • Other nations join in, eventually leading to another world-wide conflict: France, Spain, the Netherlands (armies and financial assistance)
  • English public opinion divided at home: Edmund Burke, William Pitt defend the colonial cause
wartime problems facing the colonists
Wartime Problems Facing the Colonists
  • Providing a government
    • Second Continental Congress acted as government for 13 states
    • Lacked power; could only request money, men, cooperation
    • Had some success though…
wartime problems facing the colonists1
Wartime Problems Facing the Colonists
  • Raising funds
    • States rarely gave money
    • Issued continentals (paper money)
    • Borrowed money from individuals and countries
    • Some wealthy individuals gave their support
wartime problems facing the colonists2
Wartime Problems Facing the Colonists
  • Maintaining an army
    • Usually numbered only several thousand
    • Short-term volunteers  training issues
    • Inadequate supplies
    • Reinforced by local militias
wartime problems facing the colonists3
Wartime Problems Facing the Colonists
  • Dealing with Tories
    • Civil War:
      • 1/3 support war (Patriots)
      • 1/3 remain loyal to king (Loyalists or Tories)
      • 1/3 neutral, wait to decide
    • Many loyalists fled country, other helped British army
    • Loyalist lands confiscated, sold off
    • Patriot dominated legislatures revise state constitutions, increasing democracy
treaty of paris 1783
Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • Chief American negotiators: Ben Franklin, John Jay, John Adams – secure favorable treaty
treaty of paris 17831
Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • 13 states independent
  • Americans retain fishing rights off Nova Scotia
  • Loyalist property supposed to be restored, usually ignored
political effects of the revolution usa
Political Effects of the Revolution - USA
  • Articles of Confederation loosely bound states
  • States adopt new constitutions with “Bill(s) of Rights” and democratic institutions
economic effects of the revolution usa
Economic Effects of the Revolution - USA
  • End of trade restrictions  economic growth
  • End of trans-Appalachian migration restriction
  • Breakup of large estates  more small-scale farmers
  • Large public debt & inflation
social effects of the revolution usa
Social Effects of the Revolution - USA
  • Separation of church & state (most states)
  • Aristocracy weakened
  • Criminal codes (punishment) relaxed
  • Women kept economy going in wartime, but remained second class citizens
  • Slavery mostly ended in north, holds fast in south
effects outside the usa
Effects Outside the USA
  • French Revolution (started 1789) partly inspired by American Revolution
  • Spanish America revolts during Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815)
  • Britain
    • George III’s efforts to increasing power discredited
    • Colonial policy changes  gradual self-rule
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • 13 sovereign states
aoc weaknesses
AoC: Weaknesses
  • Congress unable to enact laws: requires 9 of 13 to pass vote and rarely more than 10 states present at any time
  • No chief executive to enforce laws
  • No central courts to mediate between states
  • Amendments to constitution required unanimous approval
aoc weaknesses1
AoC: Weaknesses
  • 75%+ of congressional requests for funds from states ignored
  • Congress couldn’t prevent states from issuing own currencies
shay s rebellion 1786 1787
Shay’s Rebellion (1786-1787)
  • Debtors revolt in Massachusetts
  • Congress can’t raise its own army - only states can provide troops
aoc weaknesses2
AoC: Weaknesses
  • Congress can’t control interstate & foreign commerce:
    • NY vs. CT and NJ over taxes on goods
    • VA vs. MD over Potomac
    • Each state had treaties w/ foreign nations
aoc weaknesses3
AoC: Weaknesses
  • Foreign Nations didn’t respect US
    • British posts in Northwest Territory
    • British and Spanish prohibitions against American trade
aoc achievements
AoC: Achievements
  • Successfully ended the Revolution
  • Negotiated Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • States united… in name
  • Provided for settling of new territories…
land ordinance of 1785
Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Western lands to be surveyed, divided into townships w/ 36 miles2 (640 acres each)
  • Sections to be sold
northwest ordinance of 1787
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  • Northwest Territory  3 – 5 territories
  • Each would eventually become an equal state
    • Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin
  • Set procedures for self-rule/statehood
    • 5,000 male adults  territorial legislature
    • 60,000 inhabitants  statehood
  • Slavery prohibited
  • Bill of rights guaranteed basic civil liberties
  • Public education encouraged