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Child Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Child Development. Growth and Development. Growth —increase in size or weight Development —increase in physical, intellectual, emotional and social skills Average—identifies midpoint of range Anything within that range will be typical or normal. Life Cycle Stages.

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growth and development
Growth and Development
  • Growth—increase in size or weight
  • Development—increase in physical, intellectual, emotional and social skills
  • Average—identifies midpoint of range
    • Anything within that range will be typical or normal
life cycle stages
Life Cycle Stages
  • Prenatal-conception to birth
  • Infant - birth to one year
  • Toddler - 1 to 3 years
  • Preschooler - 3 to 5 years
  • School age - 5 to 12 years
  • Adolescence -13 to adulthood(19 and up)
types of development
Types of Development
  • Physical development -a developmental process that refers to the physical growth of a person’s body
  • Emotional development -a developmental process that refers to the ability to experience, express, and control emotions
  • Intellectual development -a developmental process that refers to the growth of the brain and the use of mental skills
  • Moral development -developmental process that refers to the ability to know right from wrong
  • Social development -a developmental process that refers to the way people relate to others around them
infant physical development
Infant Physical Development
  • Newborns have “ soft spots called fontanels(open spaces in a baby's head where the bones have not joined) which are made of membrane and cartilage(soft, elastic like tissue that is softer than bone)which harden into bone by about 18 months of age.
  • Colic(acute abdominal pain caused by abnormal conditions in the bowels) is common .
infant physical development6
Infant Physical Development
  • Cuts their first deciduous teeth (non-permanent teeth or "baby teeth“) around 6-9 months of age.
  • Hand-eye coordination (the ability to move hands and fingers precisely in relation to what is seen) improves.
  • Crawls at 7-9 months
infant physical development7
Infant Physical Development
  • Motor skills- abilities that depend on use and control of muscles
  • Newborns can’t control their movements, but motor skills develop quickly and unevenly as reflexes disappear

Raises head and chest when lying on stomach

Supports upper body with arms when lying on stomach

Stretches legs out and kicks when lying on stomach or back

Pushes down on legs when feet are placed on a firm surface

Large Motor Skills


Small Motor Skills

Opens and shuts hands

Brings hand to mouth

Takes swipes at dangling objects with hands

Grasps and shakes hand toys


Rolls both ways (front to back, back to front)

Sits with, and then without, support on hands

Supports whole weight on legs

Large Motor Skills


Reaches with one hand

Transfers object from hand to hand

Uses hand to rake objects

Small Motor Skills


Reaches sitting position without assistance

Crawls forward on belly

Assumes hands-and-knees position

Creeps on hands and knees

Gets from sitting to crawling or prone (lying on stomach) position

Pulls self up to stand

Walks holding on to furniture

Stands momentarily without support

May walk two or three steps without support

Large Motor Skills


Uses pincer grasp

Bangs two objects together

Puts objects into container

Takes objects out of container

Lets objects go voluntarily

Pokes with index finger

Tries to imitate scribbling

Small Motor Skills

toddler physical development
Toddler Physical Development
  • Weaned from bottle at one year.
  • Improving large motor skills (the use and control of the large muscles of the back, legs, shoulders and arms) allows for steadier walking and better posture.
  • Walks up and down stairs putting each foot on the stair before moving to the next before learning to step on at a time.
toddler physical development15
Toddler Physical Development
  • Toilet training begins when control of the sphincter muscle is established.
  • Eats with utensils.

Walks alone

Pulls toys behind her while walking

Carries large toy or several toys while walking

Begins to run

Stands on tiptoe

Kicks a ball

Climbs onto and down from furniture unassisted

Walks up and down stairs holding on to support

Large Motor Skills


Small Motor Skills

Scribbles on his or her own

Turns over container to pour out contents

Builds tower of four blocks or more

Might use one hand more often than the other


Large Motor Skills

Climbs well

Walks up and down stairs, alternating feet(one foot per stair step)

Kicks ball

Runs easily

Pedals tricycle

Bends over easily without falling


Small Motor Skills

Makes up-and-down, side-to-side, and circular lines with pencil or crayon

Turns book pages one at a time

Builds a tower of more than six blocks

Holds a pencil in writing position

Screws and unscrews jar lids, nuts, and bolts

Turns rotating handles

preschooler physical development
Preschooler Physical Development
  • Loves to run, skip, jump, hop
  • Learning to throw and catch ball
  • Shows strong hand preference
  • Participates in cooperative play (activity in which children actually play with one another)
preschooler physical development21
Preschooler Physical Development
  • Improved small motor skills (an ability that depends on the use and control of the finer muscles of the wrist, finger, and ankles)
    • build with blocks
    • put together puzzles
    • draw and color

Large Motor Skills

Hops and stands on one foot up to five seconds

Goes upstairs and downstairs without support

Kicks ball forward

Throws ball overhand

Catches bounced ball most of the time

Moves forward and backward with agility


Small Motor Skills

Copies square shapes

Draws a person with two to four body parts

Uses scissors

Draws circles and squares

Begins to copy some capital letters


Large Motor Skills

Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longer

Hops, somersaults

Swings, climbs

May be able to skip


Small Motor Skills

Copies triangle and other shapes

Draws person with body

Prints some letters

Dresses and undresses without help

Uses fork, spoon, and (sometimes) a table knife

Usually cares for own toilet needs

school age physical development
School-Age Physical Development
  • Develops more adult like body proportions
  • Further refined motor skills
    • ties own shoes
    • builds models/crafts
  • Improved coordination
    • dances to music
  • Prefers running to walking
adolescent physical development
Adolescent Physical Development
  • The most dramatic changes occur due to puberty(the set of changes that gives a child a physically mature body able to reproduce).
  • Puberty begins earlier for girls. They get their growth spurt around 11 and boys about 13. They may also begin menstruation (monthly process, which occurs in women from adolescence through middle age, in which blood is discharged from the uterus through the reproductive tract )
adolescent physical development28
Adolescent Physical Development
  • Girls and boys experience different kinds of changes called sex characteristics. There are two types:
    • primary sex characteristics (physical changes related to the developmentof the reproductive organs)
    • secondary sex characteristics (all physicalchanges related to puberty)
      • facial hair and change in voice for boys
      • breast development and widening of hips in girls.
infant intellectual development
Infant Intellectual Development
  • Learns through the senses
  • Develops a memory
  • Recognizes and responds to own name
  • Understands cause and effect
  • Learning object permanence (the concept in which an infant learns that people or things exist even when they are gone from sight)


Finds partially hidden object

Explores with hands and mouth

Struggles to get objects that are out of reach



  • Explores objects in many different ways (shaking, banging, throwing, dropping)
  • Finds hidden objects easily
  • Looks at correct picture when the image is named
  • Imitates gestures
  • Begins to use objects correctly (drinking from cup, brushing hair, dialing phone, listening to receiver)
toddler intellectual development
Toddler Intellectual Development
  • Learns through exploring and imitation(learning that occurs by watching and copying the actions of others)
  • Responds to simple instructions (ex. Put paper in trash.)
  • Points to pictures of familiar objects and parts of own body
toddler intellectual development33
Toddler Intellectual Development
  • Uses the word “no” effectively
  • Develops a better understanding of cause and effect.
  • Holds up fingers to indicate age.
  • Improves ability to reason


Finds objects even when hidden under two or three covers

Begins to sort by shapes and colors

Begins make-believe play



Makes mechanical toys work

Matches an object in his hand or room to a picture in a book

Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people

Completes puzzles with three or four pieces

Understands concept of “two”

preschooler intellectual development
Preschooler Intellectual Development
  • Uses classification(the process of mentally grouping objects or ideas into categories or groups based on some unique feature) for single categories like car, dog, cat, color, shape
  • “Why?” is their favorite question
  • Has difficulty understanding concepts of time
    • yesterday, tomorrow, later
preschooler intellectual development37
Preschooler Intellectual Development
  • Exhibits increased attention span and concentration
  • Confuses fact and fantasy. Tells “tall tales”
  • Responds well to directed learning experiences(learning experiences that are planned with a specific goal in mind)


Correctly names some colors

Understands the concept of counting and may know a few numbers

Tries to solve problems from a single point of view

Begins to have a clearer sense of time

Follows three-part commands

Recalls parts of a story

Understands the concepts of "same" and "different“

Engages in fantasy play



Can count 10 or more objects

Correctly names at least four colors

Better understands the concept of time

Knows about things used every day in the home

(money, food, appliances)

school age intellectual development
School-Age Intellectual Development
  • Beginning to master seriation

(the ability to arrange items in an increasing or decreasing order based on weight, volume, number, or size; grouping by a common property)

  • Enjoys hobbies and crafts
  • Beginning to understand concept of time
school age intellectual development41
School-Age Intellectual Development
  • Understanding reversibility(capable of going backward or forward through a series ofactions or changes) allows the child to be creative.
    • rolling a ball of clay into a ball and then flattening it out
    • smoothing out a crumbled piece of paper
    • pouring liquid into various shaped and sized containers
adolescent intellectual development
Adolescent Intellectual Development
  • Develops ability to think abstractly.
  • Becomes aware of world issues like conservation (protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm)
  • Becomes concerned with moral values.
infant emotional social development
Infant Emotional & Social Development
  • Bonding (forming strong emotional ties between individuals) occurs between the infant and caregiver (a person that provides care for and meets the needs of someone else).
  • Very attached to the primary caregiver (the person that will provide the most care and spend the most time with a child or another person) and enjoys their companionship
infant emotional social development44
Infant Emotional & Social Development
  • Experiences separation anxiety

(a child's fear of being away from parents, familiar caregivers, or the normal environment)

  • Strangeranxiety(a baby's fear of unfamiliar people)

Social & Emotional

Begins to develop a social smile

Enjoys playing with other people and may cry when playing stops

Becomes more expressive and communicates more with face and body

Imitates some movements and facial expressions



Enjoys social play

Interested in mirror images

Responds to other people’s expressions of emotion and appears joyful often



Shy or anxious with strangersCries when mother or father leavesEnjoys imitating people in his playShows specific preferences for certain people and toysTests parental responses to his behaviorMay be fearful in some situationsPrefers mother and/or regular caregiver over all othersRepeats sounds or gestures for attentionFinger-feeds himselfExtends arm or leg to help when being dressed

toddler emotional social development
Toddler Emotional & Social Development
  • Temper tantrums(a sudden outburst of anger in which children may kick, scream, cry, or holdtheir breath) are common
  • Self-centered and demanding
  • Possessive and refuses to share
toddler emotional social development49
Toddler Emotional & Social Development
  • Prefers parallel play(activity in which children play side by side without interacting)
  • Desires consistency
  • May experience aggressive behavior

like biting, hitting and pushing



Imitates behavior of others, especially adults and older children

More aware of herself as separate from others

More excited about company of other children

Demonstrates increasing independence

Begins to show defiant behavior

Separation anxiety increases toward midyear then fades



Imitates adults and playmatesSpontaneously shows affection for familiar playmatesCan take turns in gamesUnderstands concept of "mine" and "his/hers"

Expresses affection openlyExpresses a wide range of emotionsSeparates easily from parentsObjects to major changes in routine

preschooler emotional social development
Preschooler Emotional & Social Development
  • May show regression behavior(reverting to earlier behaviors )when traumatic events occur
    • wet their pants, wants to drink from bottle, baby talk
  • Learns to take turns and share
preschooler emotional social development53
Preschooler Emotional & Social Development
  • Begins to form friendships usually same sex
  • Prefers cooperative play(activity in which children actually play with one another)
  • Forms sex-role identity(understanding what it means to be male or female)


Interested in new experiencesCooperates with other childrenPlays "Mom" or "Dad"Increasingly inventive in fantasy playDresses and undressesNegotiates solutions to conflicts

Imagines that many unfamiliar images may be "monsters"Views self as a whole person involving body, mind, and feelingsOften cannot tell the difference between fantasy and reality



Wants to please friendsWants to be like her friendsMore likely to agree to rulesLikes to sing, dance, and actShows more independence and may even visit a next-door neighbor by himself

Aware of genderAble to distinguish fantasy from realitySometimes demanding, sometimes Eagerly cooperative

school age emotional social development
School-Age Emotional & Social Development
  • Wants to be right, first and to win
  • Tattles on playmates
  • Shows emotional sensitivity when criticized
  • Likes to look and act like peers
  • Offers excuses for wrong doings
adolescent emotional social development
Adolescent Emotional & Social Development
  • Increased interest in the opposite sex
  • Frequent emotional ups and downs
  • Concerned about failure
  • Unsure of their potential(what a person is capable of becoming)
adolescent emotional social development58
Adolescent Emotional & Social Development
  • Often highly critical of self
    • May develop an eating disorder like anorexia nervosa(a psychological disorder where a person eats very little or refuses to eat as they see themselves overweight even when they are dangerously underweight)
    • Bulimia (a person with this disorder repeatedly binges and then purges, by vomiting or taking laxatives, to prevent weight gain)
ways parents can help children achieve full potential in physical development
Ways Parents Can Help Children Achieve Full Potential in Physical Development
  • Provide nutritious foods
  • Provide appropriate health care
  • Encourage physical activity
  • Establishing sleeping patterns
identify ways children learn
Identify Ways Children Learn
  • Incidental learning-unplanned learning
  • Trial-and-error learning-when a child tries several solutions before finding one that works
  • Imitation-learning by watching and copying others
  • Directed learning- learning that results from being taught
name ways parents can influence intellectual development in children
Name Ways Parents Can Influence Intellectual Development in Children
  • Talk to the child
  • Read to the child
  • Meet physical needs (food, clothing, shelter)
  • Cuddle and provide emotional support
  • Encourage new skills
  • Parents
  • Brother
  • Spanking
  • Sister
  • Grandma
  • Camping
  • Family
  • Love
  • Jealous
  • Babysitting
  • Sharing
  • Compromise
  • Punishment
  • Television
  • Dinner
  • Bedtime
  • Patience
  • Hurt
  • Band-aid
  • Home
ways parents can have a positive influence on a child s emotional and social development
Ways parents can have a positive influence on a child’s emotional and social development
  • Show love and affection
  • Model behavior within the family unit
  • Encourage interactions
  • Provide opportunities for children to interact with others
baby massage
Baby Massage
  • Infants who receive massages seem to grow faster, develop lots of healthy muscle tone, and coordination.
  • Some babies actually score higher on intelligence exams, or at least those activities that require attentiveness.
  • They have a greater focus and they’re much less aggressive and more calm than other children.
  • The first thing you need to do is to relax before you touch your partner.
    • You might roll your shoulders, take a couple of deep breaths and just try to relax.
  • You can play music or even sing while you are performing the massage – something to make the massage relaxing and enjoyable for both of you.
  • Ask out loud, “Is it OK if I massage hands and arms today?” Keep good eye contact and observe your partner’s face to see if they’re reacting positively.
  • Pour some of the oil on your hands and rub your hands together to make sure the oil is also warmed up.
  • Start the massage by first working on your partner’s hands and fingers.
  • When you’re done with hands and fingers, you can work your way up to stroking and massaging your partner’s arms.
crossword puzzle
Crossword Puzzle
  • Colic
  • Temper Tantrum
  • Sex-Role Identity
  • Bulimia
  • Classification
  • Imitation
  • Puberty
  • Cartilage
  • Potential
  • Seriation
  • Conservation
  • Child Development
  • Care Giver
  • Menstruation
  • Bonding
  • Reversibility
environmental factors that influence development
Environmental Factors that Influence Development
  • Family
  • Friends
  • Home
  • Community
  • Life experiences
nurturing environment
Nurturing Environment
  • Calm, cozy & comfortable sets the mood
  • A nurturing environment embraces kids at their level
  • A positive environment sets kids up to succeed
design the perfect environment
Design the Perfect Environment
  • Soft Space Area:
    • Pillows
    • Comforters
    • Stuffed animals
  • Building Area:
    • Blocks
    • Dinosaurs
    • Toy Cars
    • Connecting toys (Lego's)
  • The first few hours following birth are filled with saying, “hello” to your new baby.
  • Your new baby will have his or her own unique personality and appearance.
  • What do you think your baby will look like? Describe the baby’s appearance-head, face, skin, and body.
bell work
Bell Work

List the 6 Life Cycle Stages

bell work78
Bell Work
  • How can knowing what to expect in a child’s growth and development help you become a better parent?
  • If you had a child and had questions about the child’s development, who are 3 people you would ask for help?
bell work79
Bell Work
  • What kind of activities do you

participate in now?

  • What kind of activities do you think you will participate in with your child someday? (List 5)
bell work80
Bell Work
  • Do you think you will read to your child?
    • Why or why not?
  • What was your favorite childhood book?
bell work81
Bell Work

What are 4 ways parents can help children achieve full potential in physical development?

bell work82
Bell Work

List 3 Ways Children Learn

List 2 Ways Parents Can Influence Intellectual Development in Children

bell work83
Bell Work

List 2 ways parents can have a positive influence on a child’s emotional and social development.

Did you enjoy the massage yesterday?

Why or Why not?

journal entry
Journal Entry
  • You’re the parent of a 7 month old, but your baby cannot sit up by himself. You’re spouse says you shouldn’t be concerned.
  • How do you feel about this?
  • What can you do to help your child’s physical development?
journal entry85

Journal Entry:

What are some moral principles you will teach your children?