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sleep, consciousness, and paper writing. Michael Frank 3/14/07. Today. Consciousness and sleep Quiz Brief review of paper writing. Sleep review. How many sleep stages? How are they measured?. Sleep stages. Stage 1: Hypnogogic sleep Stage 2: Sleep spindles Stages 3 & 4: Slow-wave sleep

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  • Consciousness and sleep
  • Quiz
  • Brief review of paper writing
sleep review
Sleep review
  • How many sleep stages?
  • How are they measured?
sleep stages
Sleep stages
  • Stage 1: Hypnogogic sleep
  • Stage 2: Sleep spindles
  • Stages 3 & 4: Slow-wave sleep
  • REM sleep
sleep stages1
Sleep stages

Kales and Kales. N. Engl. J. Med.1974;209:487-499

discussion consciousness sleep
Discussion: Consciousness & Sleep
  • Are we conscious during dreams (REM sleep)?
  • What is the function of REM sleep?
  • Why might sleep patterns change with age?
  • What are the two types of conditioning (bonus: what is the name of the researcher most associated with each technique)
  • What is latent learning?
  • If TV and video games make children violent, this is an example of what kind of learning?
  • What was the hardest question on the exam?
writing a critical review
Writing a critical review
  • Seems strange, but actually very common in science:
    • Read a variety of sources
    • Synthesize into an argument for or against
  • Paper should be about particular arguments, not opinions or personalities
    • No reference to own feelings
    • Very rare to use direct quotations
    • Not about personalities involved, just about theories/facts
paper structure
Paper structure
  • Thesis: Squirrels are evil. [argumentativeclaim]
  • Squirrels steal from other species
    • bird feeders [evidence]
    • picnics [evidence]
  • Squirrels do not act morally towards one another
  • Squirrels bite without provocation
  • Conclusion: Squirrels are definitely evil [restate thesis]. Should we eradicate them? [extend]
the road map
The Road Map
  • Road map gives the reader a preview of the argument:
  • Signposts help the reader stay on track
  • “What is the moral status of squirrels? They steal from their own kind, they act immorally towards other species, and they bite without provocation. The evidence is clear: squirrels are evil.”
  • “Our second argument for squirrels’ immorality is...”
  • Thesis in the first paragraph
  • No summary!
    • You can cite evidence for a specific point, but that’s different:

[Starting a paragraph]

Not so good:In his essay, Ronaldo writes that his hatred of squirrels started at an early age, when he saw one steal a sandwich from his brother.

Better:Squirrels steal from both their own species and from humans. Ronaldo observes that squirrel-on-human crime is extremely prevalent in Northern California.

possible traps
Possible traps
  • Point-counterpoint
    • bad: john says this, but steve says the other thing
    • better: structure your argument around particular claims, not by evaluating the authors’ statements
  • Too much emphasis on “flow”
    • Arguments can be separate points
    • Numbering is useful for organization