Drug use, Drug abuse and DRUG TAKING BEHAVIOR. Problem: How to define.
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Problem: How to measure(Reactivity and return rate issues)
Though evidence in regard to violence associated with the pharmacological effects for most illicit substances is weak at best.
DRUG TESTS BRING WORRIES OF ACCURACYApril 16, 1998 "I go to extraordinary lengths before I call a positive."—Dr. DavidBerg, Medical review officer said.The water-cooler talk is true: Poppy seeds can produce a positive test for heroin, and cold medicine can suggest methamphetamine.
The wild eyed claim that a third of all people accused of drug use will be innocent is not so ridiculous after all.
Figure 4 shows that the proportion of spurious results among people identified as drug users is surprisingly sensitive to test accuracy. An accuracy of 99% is marginal at best. However the biggest surprise is the fact that the proportion of spurious results among people failing drug tests approaches 100% as the proportion of drug users in the general population approaches zero. Drug testing in a drug free population amounts to a witch hunt.
A difficult question.
1. Intra-cranial drug infusion: a small tube (cannula) is implanted, minute concentrations of drug can be delivered after bar presses
These are very difficult studies to conduct.
** ICDS is supported when the cannula targets the VTA
This diagram represents a study where ICSS and Microdialysis are combined…to measure effects of stimulation on NT release at cct. terminations
The probe tip allows NTs to diffuse through a membrane where they are then pumped up and out for continuous collection over time.