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Brian Metzger Princeton University. In collaboration with. Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst Central Engines. Eliot Quataert (Berkeley) Todd Thompson (Ohio State) Tony Piro (Berkeley) Niccolo Bucciantini (Nordita) Almudena Arcones (MPIK)

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short duration gamma ray burst central engines

Brian Metzger Princeton University

In collaboration with

Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst Central Engines

Eliot Quataert (Berkeley)

Todd Thompson (Ohio State)

Tony Piro (Berkeley)

Niccolo Bucciantini (Nordita)

Almudena Arcones (MPIK)

Gabriel Martinez-Pinedo (MPIK)

Chandra / Einstein Fellows Symposium Harvard CfA, October 27 2009

gamma ray bursts long short duration1
Gamma-Ray Bursts: Long & Short Duration

BATSE GRBs

Long

  • High Redshift, zavg ~ 2
  • Large Energies (Eiso~1052-54 ergs)
  • Star-Forming Host Galaxies
  • Type Ic Broad-Line Supernovae

Nakar 07

gamma ray bursts long short duration2
Gamma-Ray Bursts: Long & Short Duration

BATSE GRBs

Long

  • High Redshift, zavg ~ 2
  • Large Energies (Eiso~1052-54 ergs)
  • Star-Forming Host Galaxies
  • Type Ic Broad-Line Supernovae

Nakar 07

Nakar 07

Short

merging compact objects ns ns or bh ns paczynski 1986 goodman 1986 eichler 1989 narayan 1992
Merging Compact Objects (NS-NS or BH-NS) Paczynski 1986; Goodman 1986; Eichler+1989; Narayan+ 1992, …

t = 0.7 ms

Inspiral “Chirp” Gravitational Waves

  • Target for Advanced LIGO
  • Disk left behind w/ mass ~ 10-3 - 0.1 M & size ~ 10-100 km
  •  cooling via neutrinos: ( >>1,  ~ 1)

t = 3 ms

Shibata & Taniguchi 2006

accretion induced collapse aic
Accretion-Induced Collapse (AIC)
  • Binary Accretion or WD-WD Merger
  • “Failed” Type Ia SN
  • Collapse of rapidly-rotating WD  Disk around PNS: Mdisk ~ 10-2 - 0.3 M

Circinus X-1 (Chandra)

Neutron Star Circinus X-1  > 15 ! (Fender et al. 2004)

similar systems distinct origins
Similar Systems - Distinct Origins

NS-NS / BH-NS Mergers

BH

M ~ 0.01-0.1 M R ~ 100 km

Accretion-Induced Collapse

NS

consistent with short GRB durations

grb050509b

Short GRB Host Galaxies

GRB050509b

GRB050709

z = 0.16 SFR = 0.2 M yr-1

Bloom+ 06

z = 0.225 SFR < 0.1 M yr-1

KECK Bloom+06

HUBBLE Fox+05

GRB050724

Berger +05

z = 0.258 SFR < 0.03 M yr-1

Berger+05

grb050509b1

Short GRB Host Galaxies

GRB050509b

GRB050709

z = 0.16 SFR = 0.2 M yr-1

Bloom +06

No Supernova!

z = 0.225 SFR < 0.1 M yr-1

KECK Bloom+06

HUBBLE Fox+05

  • Lower redshift* (z ~ 0.1-1)
  • Eiso~ 1049-51 ergs*
  • Older Progenitor Population (Consistent with being drawn from field galaxies; Berger 09)

GRB050724

Berger +05

GRB050724

z = 0.258 SFR < 0.03 M yr-1

Berger+05

short grbs with extended x ray emission
Short GRBs with Extended X-Ray Emission

~25% of Swift Bursts (2 classes?) Similarity To GRB  Ongoing Engine Activity EEE/EGRB ~ 1-30 !

GRB050709

GRB080503

SEE/SGRB ~ 30

Perley et al. 2008

BATSE Examples (Norris & Bonnell 2006)

evolution of the remnant disk

Metzger, Piro, Quataert 2008, 2009 (see also Beloborodov 2009; Lee et al. 2009)

Evolution of the Remnant Disk

Local Disk Mass r2 (M)

1-D Time-Dependent Models ( viscosity; realistic -cooling)

late time outflows
Late-Time Outflows

Metzger et al. 2008, 2009

At t ~ 0.1-1 seconds: R ~ 500 km, M ~ 0.3 Minitial, T ~ 1 MeV

}

  • -Particle Formation
  • Thick Disks Marginally Bound

(Narayan & Yi 94; Blandford & Begelman 99)

EBIND ~ GMBHmn/2R ~ 3 MeV nucleon-1

Powerful Winds Blow Apart Disk

ENUC ~ 7 MeV nucleon-1

BH

~20-40% of the Initial Disk is Ejected Back into Space!

slide14

Tidal Tails in NS-NS/NS-BH Mergers

Lee & Ramirez-Ruiz 07

Tail(s) with ~10% prompt disk mass

late time fall back accretion
Late-Time Fall-Back Accretion

+

(Rosswog 07; Faber+06; Lee+09)

a

Rosswog 07

slide16

r - Process Heating (not included in present simulations!)

Decompressing NS Matter A ~ 100 Nuclei + Free Neutrons (Lattimer+77; Meyer 89):

Protons

Neutrons

Er~ 1-3 MeV nucleon-1 released over theat ~ 1 second

slide17

r-Process Network Calculations

+

Metzger, Arcones, Quataert, Martinez-Pinedo 2009

a

slide18

Total r-Process Heating Along Fall-Back Orbits

Orbital Period

Binding Energy of Merger Ejecta

slide19

theat > 1 s

theat < 1 s

+

+

a

a

torb ~ 1 s

slide20

theat > 1 s

theat < 1 s

+

+

a

a

torb ~ 1 s

No Late Fall-Back

slide21

theat > 1 s

theat < 1 s

+

+

a

a

torb ~ 1 s

“Gap”

No Late Fall-Back

the effects of r process heating on fall back accretion
The Effects of r-Process Heating on Fall-back Accretion

Metzger, Arcones, Quataert, Martinez-Pinedo 2009

Either: Complete Suppression of Fall-Back after t ~ 1 sec

OR “Gap” of t ~ seconds opened

slide24

Magnetar Spin-Down

Following:

  • Accretion-Induced Collapse
  • NS-NS Merger with long-lived NS remnant

NS

slide25

Magnetar Spin-Down

Following:

  • Accretion-Induced Collapse
  • NS-NS Merger with long-lived NS remnant

NS

High 

Low 

Internal Shock Emission

Power (1051 ergs s-1)

P0= 1 ms

1016 G

GRB060614 Overlaid

3 1015 G

Metzger, Quataert & Thompson 08

 ~ 

1015 G

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Swift Revolution: Afterglows and Host Galaxies

 long and short GRBs have distinct progenitors

  • NS-NS/NS-BH Remains Promising Model

 consistent w/ host galaxies, durations, energetics

    • accretion disk spreads, explodes at t ~ 1 second.

 ~100 second X-ray Emission = Major Problem

  • Oft-Discussed Explanation = Fall-Back Accretion
    • r-process heating must be taken into account

 either: “natural” explanation or makes matters worse

  • AIC = Promising Alternative Model (NS Remains!)