THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION MARTIN LUTHER
What does the word Reformation mean? Reformation: A change (an improvement) Last test of the year will be essay and open note so take careful notes
What is the Reformation? • During the 1500’s the Catholic Church was selling indulgences,offering a faster way into heaven after death. Wealthy people could buy forgiveness for their sins. Is it fair that wealthy people could pay to have their sins forgiven by the Catholic Church? Would it be fair for you to pay for a higher grade in this class? I accept cash only
Martin Luther, a monk, wrote 95 theses against the Catholic Church and received many followers. Eventually he formed a new Christian faith “Lutheranism.” Martin Luther’s 95 theses are linked to the class notes section of chapter 8.
King Henry VIII wanted his marriage annulled. When the Pope refused (His wife was Catherine of Aragon from the Catholic nation of Spain) he did so anyway and was excommunicated. He created a separate Christian religion for England – Anglican Church.
John Calvin, a theologian, argued in predestination - the belief that our fate is already predetermined and that indulgences were not needed. His following spread to England and the New World with the pilgrims (puritans).
30 Years’ War • Europe was divided among Catholic kingdoms and Protestant (from the word protest) kingdoms. Northern Europe became mostly protestant while Southern Europe remained mostly Catholic. This division is stillevident today. • The 30 Years’ War was fought between 1618-1648. This war divided the Protestant and Catholic nations and as a result Spain lost power and France gained power.
Wars of Religion • In England, Queen Mary took the throne and killed over 300 protestants gaining the name “Bloody Mary” as she tried to restore England to a Catholic kingdom. Eventually, Queen Elizabeth took control of England and ensure it would remain a “Protestant” kingdom following the Anglican Church.
QUEEN MARY and her half sister QUEEN ELIZABETH United by blood –divided by religion Queen Elizabeth’s mother was Anne Boleyn – executed for treason Queen Mary’s mother was Catherine of Aragon (Spain – Catholic kingdom) and therefore she was a strong Catholic Monarch
PROTESTANT (red/orange/purple) Orthodox (Christian) (blue) Islam (yellow) CATHOLIC (green)
Legacy of the Reformation GREAT TEST QUESTION • The economic and political power of the Catholic Church was diminished. • Kings solidified their power among nobles and ruled by divine right, a belief that God has granted them sole authority to rule. • Catholics became committed to spread their faith around the world. Catholic missions spread around the world (see page 440 in your text book).
COPY THESE FOR THE TEST –OPEN NOTE Questions: • Why did Martin Luther write his 95 theses? • What effect did indulgences have on Martin Luther’s actions? • How did John Calvin’s writings help Europeans accept Protestantism? • What was the belief of predestination? • Why did Henry VIII break away from the Catholic Church • What effect did the Protestant Reformation have on Europe and the world?
THESE WERE YOUR LAST LECTURE NOTES FOR SEVENTH GRADE! • HAVE A FUN AND SAFE SUMMER