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Chapter 23. The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750 - 1914. A. Optimism Against All Odds Marquis of Condorcet French aristocrat; hiding from French revolutionaries Progress of the Human Mind Progress had become inevitable in modern world; mankind on verge of virtual perfection

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chapter 23

Chapter 23

The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750 - 1914

i the age of revolution
A. Optimism Against All Odds

Marquis of Condorcet

French aristocrat; hiding from French revolutionaries

Progress of the Human Mind

Progress had become inevitable in modern world; mankind on verge of virtual perfection

Age of Revolution

Period of political upheaval

B. Forces of Change

Enlightenment

Commercialization

Population growth

C. The American Revolution

1775, outbreak of the Revolution

French aid

1789, new constitution

I. The Age of Revolution
i the age of revolution4
D. Crisis in France in 1789

Enlightenment influence

1789, Louis XVI calls parliament, but mid-class reps want a “real” parliament

He caves, and revolution is underway

Assembly

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

Freedom of thought

July 14, Bastille attacked

Prison stormed; symbol of revolution

Principles:

Serfdom abolished

Equality for men

End to aristocratic privilege

Church privilege ended

Elective parliament

I. The Age of Revolution
i the age of revolution5
E. The French Revolution: Radical and Authoritarian Phases

Reaction

Church

Aristocracy

Foreign powers

Radical shift

Monarchy abolished

King executed (decapitated)

Reign of Terror

Several thousand opponents killed

Maximilien de Robespierre

Leader of this phase

Convinced he knew people’s will

1795, more moderate government

Napoleon Bonaparte

1799, final phase

Authoritarian

Supports key principles

Religious freedom

Equality for men

Expansionist

Empire

Most of Europe by 1812

Tries Russia in 1812, fails due to cold

1815, defeated

I. The Age of Revolution
i the age of revolution7
F. A Conservative Settlement and the Revolutionary Legacy

Congress of Vienna of 1815

New political movements

Conservatives

Restore monarchy to France

Link Europe’s major powers in defense of churches and kings

Defined themselves in opposition to revolutionary goals

Liberals

Constitutional rule

Protection of freedoms

Especially middle class

Radicals

Extension of voting rights

Socialism

Attack property rights

Nationalists

Spread of Revolutions, 1820s, 1830s

Greece, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium

Extension of male suffrage

Britain, United States

Reform Bill of 1832

I. The Age of Revolution
i the age of revolution10
G. Industrialization and the Revolutions of 1848

Lower classes

Political action

Britain accommodates demands

Revolts in Germany, Austria, Hungary

France, 1848, monarch overthrown

Goals

Liberal constitutions

Social reform

End of serfdom

Women’s rights

Ethnic demands

Revolutions of 1848 FAIL

Revolutionary era in W. Europe is OVER

By 1850, an industrial class structure had come to dominate

Social structure less on birth and more on money

ALLIANCES DISSOLVED

I. The Age of Revolution
ii the consolidation of the industrial order 1850 1914
A. Adjustments to Industrial Life

1st time in human history that more than a minority of people live in cities

Sanitation improves

Louis Pasteur discovers germs in 1880s

Families

Birth and death rates down; 1st time that death rates below birth rates

Children seen not as workers

Labor movements

Rural cooperatives

II. The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914

Industrialization in Europe c. 1850

ii the consolidation of the industrial order 1850 191412
B. Political Trends and the Rise of New Nations

After 1850, leaders learn to adopt change

Benjamin Disraeli

British conservative leader

Vote for working-class males, 1867

Camillo di Cavour

Extends power of parliament to please liberal forces

Supports industrialization

Otto von Bismarck

Vote for all adult males

Nationalism used

Had been a radical tool, turned to the other side now

Italy and Germany

Bismarck

German Unification, 1871

American Civil War

Based on industrial weaponry and transport systems

Solved sectional rights

II. The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914

The Unification of Italy

ii the consolidation of the industrial order 1850 191414
C. The Social Question and New Government Functions

School systems

Literacy increases

Welfare

Health, old age

Social reform becomes key political issue

Constitutional issues were replaced by social issues

The Social Question

Socialism

Grievances of the working class

Karl Marx

Final phase of march of history, at the end of which there is no more class struggle

Identifies capitalist “evil”

Parties in Germany, Austria, France, 1880s

Women gain right to vote in many countries

Middle class women

Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928

II. The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914
iii cultural transformations
A. Emphasis on Consumption and Leisure

Pleasure-seeking more acceptable

Consumerism

Newspapers

Entertainment

Vacations

Leisure a commodity

Team sports

Travel industry

III. Cultural Transformations
iii cultural transformations16
B. Advances in Scientific Knowledge

Rationalism

Darwin - 1859

Evolution

Einstein – after 1900

Relativity

Grasp physical universe

Social Sciences

Science applied to human life

Freud – end of 19th century

C. New Directions in Artistic Expression

Romanticism

Emotion & impression, not reason and generalization, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature

Opposed to rationalism

Human emotion

Split between artists and scientists

Becoming increasingly abstract as 20th century enters

III. Cultural Transformations
iv western settler societies
Industrialization makes west more powerful

Impact of improved transportation, communication

A. Emerging Power of the United States

American Civil War, 1861-1865

Spurs industrialization

IV. Western Settler Societies

Early 19th-Century Settlements in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

iv western settler societies19
B. European Settlements in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

Peopled by immigrants

Follow European political, economic, cultural patterns

Canada

Federal system

Won by Britain in wars with France in 18th century

Australia

From 1788

Settled as penal settlement

Only previous inhabitants were aborigines (hunt/gather)

Gold rush, agricultural development

Federal system by 1900

New Zealand

Maori defeated by 1860s

Agricultural economy

All remained part of British Empire, though with increasingly growing autonomy

Britain learned from “mistakes” of American Revolution

IV. Western Settler Societies
v diplomatic tensions and world war i
Rise of Germany

Bismarck

Complex alliance system in late 19th century

France isolated

Unsettles balance of power

European global expansion

By 1900s, few parts of the world were available for Western seizure

Latin America independent

Africa controlled by Europeans

China, Middle East

Zones of European rivalry

V. Diplomatic Tensions and World War I
v diplomatic tensions and world war i21
A. The New Alliance System

By 1907

Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Triple Entente: Britain, Russia, France

Instability

Russian Revolution, 1905

Austria-Hungary

Ethnic conflict

Balkans

Free of Ottoman control

Divided by enmities

1914, assassination of Austrian archduke

B. Diplomacy and Society

Instability in 1800s

Nationalism

Political division

Industrial pressures

V. Diplomatic Tensions and World War I

The Balkans after the Regional Wars, 1913

The Balkans before the Regional Wars, 1912