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  1. Contest 1/3 When did the Civil War begin and end?

  2. Contest 2/3 Who were the rival presidents during the Civil War?

  3. Contest 3/3 How many Jews fought in the Civil War?

  4. 10,000 Jews Fought in the Civil War 7,000 United States Soldiers|3,000 Confederate States Soldiers

  5. Many others were involved

  6. The “worst official act of American anti-Semitism” occurred during the Civil War

  7. The Civil War pushed Jewish rights forward

  8. There is mystery and more to discover

  9. David EinhornResponse to “A Bible View of Slavery” (1861) “The thunder-cloud still hangs heavily over our head, and hides the future of our beloved land in dense mist…. Still—no matter which political party we may belong to—the sanctity of our Law must never be drawn into political controversy, nor disgraced in the interest of this or that political opinion…. The spotless morality of the Mosaic principles is our pride and our fame, and our weapon since thousands of years. This weapon we cannot forfeit without pressing a mighty sword into the hands of our foes.” David Einhorn, photographed in Baltimore c. 1848-1861

  10. “A Jewish Soldier”Army of Potomac Basic Training (1862) “Whoever has not witnessed the enthusiasm with which that intelligence was received in the camps, can have no conception of a joyous demonstration among men. The cheers, huzzahs, and hallelujah's arose from ten thousand sound throats, were taken up by the next, and the next, until a quarter of a million of men were hoarse with shouting, and the sounds seemed like a hurricane sweeping over the rigging of a vessel. Officers threw themselves into each other's arms and hugged one another like women, privates danced like Indians, the horses took up the sound and neighed in a dignified and majestic manner, the mules pricked up their ears, the sutlers even had something in the shape of a smile about their jaws…. We have, sometimes, sham fights, to accustom the various divisions to co-operate and to train them to the rapid movements on the battle-field. On such occasions, every incident of an actual battle is introduced. Regiments retreating and advancing, bayonet charges on a gigantic scale, assaults on batteries and forts, leaping ditches, scaling ramparts, and, now and then, soldiers fall as if wounded, in order to train the ambulance drivers and litter carriers in their duties….The spirit of our troops is excellent. Nothing could be more welcome to them than the order to advance.”

  11. Eugenia Levy PhillipsJournal (1862) “I deliberately seated myself, saying: ‘None but physical force can make me go alone in that room; so I advise some of you valiant men to get a rope, attach it to my neck, and pull me in….’ As I advanced, Butler's loud and vulgar voice greeted me, while an arm was thrust into my face.…He screamed: ‘You are seen laughing and mocking at the remains of a Federal officer. I do not call you a common woman of the town, but an uncommonly vulgar one, and I sentence you to Ship Island for the War….’ Again my insolence aroused this son of liberty, as in reply to his accusation I said: ‘I was in good spirits the day of the funeral.’”

  12. “An Indignant Israelite”Are Israelites Slaves? (1863) “What right has a general or even the legislature of the nation to banish any class of believers from any district or portion of the land? Have we a constitution or not? Is there a law above the arbitrary will of civil and military rulers or not?”

  13. Rebekah HynemanLetter (1864) “May his pure spirit hover over you, my treasure, and turn aside every weapon that is aimed against you…. I am writing this in the room in which he breathed his last, it seems as if I am not satisfied anywhere else….I do not grieve for him as one without hope, no, thank G-d I am filled with hope, a hope that I may purify myself to meet him and a perfect conviction that he is happy…. Oh my darling, how I missed you, how my heart yearned for my absent boy to comfort it, but I knew it was useless, that you could not come, nor do I expect you now. I am pretty sure they will not give you a furlough, nor would I have my boy dishonoured by leaving without one, much as I want to have you with me. No my dear one, let us await events calmly and patiently, trust in G-d's goodness, and do our duty well and faithfully to the end…. My dearest, I hope I may be able to write a more cheerful letter when I next write, but I felt as if I wanted to pour out my heart to you, who know so well how to sympathize with me in my trouble. It seems almost sinful to fret and sorrow that a blessed soul has gained immortality, especially one that had become weaned so completely from all earthliness. You say truly you have lost a brother but heaven has gained an angel…. Write to me often your letters are solacing and comfort me much.”

  14. Louis LeonA Tar Heel Jewish Soldier in the Confederate Army (1865) “On the morning of the 12th we heard that Lee had surrendered on the 9th, and about 400, myself with them, took the cursed oath and were given transportation to wherever we wanted to go. I took mine to New York City to my parents, whom I have not seen since 1858…. Those that remain to see the end for which they fought - what have we left? The end of all is a desolated home to go to. When I commenced this diary of my life as a Confederate soldier I was full of hope for the speedy termination of the war, and our independence. I was not quite nineteen years old. I am now twenty-three. The four years that I have given to my country I do not regret, nor am I sorry for one day that I have given - my only regret is that we have lost that for which we fought…. I shall now close this diary in sorrow, but to the last I will say that, although but a private, I still say our Cause was just, nor do I regret one thing that I have done to cripple the North.”