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Beginnings of the Cold War Main Idea Once partners in war, the Soviet Union and the other former Allies found it much more difficult to cooperate in peace. The result was an era of conflict and confrontation called the Cold War. • Reading Focus • How did peace create problems for the Allies? • How did the Cold War conflict worsen in the late 1940s? • What were some of the early Cold War confrontations?
Occupying Germany Four Zones Capital Divided • Much of Germany in ruins when war ended, May 1945 • Allies needed to establish system to govern and rebuild nation • Allies began to plan Germany’s future before war’s end • Agreed on major issues at Potsdam • Agreed to divide into four zones of occupation • Soviet Union to control one-third • Remaining two-thirds controlled by rest of Allies • Also divided capital of Berlin into four occupation zones The Problems of Peace • In World War II the Allies worked together to defeat the Axis • At war’s end, shattered European nations needed to be dealt with • This task placed a great strain on the alliance
Ridding Germany of Nazis • Allies also worked together to establish plan to rid Germany of any remnants of Nazi Party, Nazi beliefs • Brought former Nazi, military leaders to justice for crimes committed during war at Nuremberg trials in Nuremberg, Germany; 1945–1949 • Trials and Reparations • Military courts tried more than two hundred Nazi, military officials • Several dozen sentenced to death for roles in Holocaust, war crimes • Allies also agreed on plan for Germany to pay reparations for destruction caused by war; in form of currency, industrial equipment • Soviet Union got largest share; had suffered greatest destruction
Eastern Europe • Beyond Germany • Allies agreed on Germany, what to do with rest of Europe more difficult • Even before war ended, major Allied powers in conflict over Eastern Europe • Eastern Europe bordered Soviet Union, was occupied by Soviet forces • Buffer Zone • Soviet leaders had been invaded by Germany in both wars • Wanted buffer zone of friendly governments to guard against another attack • Stalin promised to respect Eastern Europeans’ right to choose governments • Growing Tensions • American, British leaders believed Stalin planned to establish pro-Soviet Communist governments throughout Eastern Europe and beyond • Growing tensions between Allies about to lead to another conflict
Identify Supporting Details What problems did peace bring for the Allies? Answer(s): how to treat defeated countries, disagreements on what to do with Eastern Europe
The Struggle Begins Pro-Soviet Governments • Cold War more than military rivalry • Struggle for power, control between two nations with very different approaches • Conflict between communism, capitalist democracy • Backed by Soviet troops, pro-Soviet Communist governments established in Eastern Europe • Only Yugoslavia avoided Soviet domination, although it was led by Communist dictator The Conflict Worsens The relationship between the Soviet Union and the Western nations continued to worsen after the war. Soon the United States and the Soviet Union entered an era of tension and hostility, which became known as the Cold War. As communism spread throughout Eastern Europe, tension between the Soviet Union and the western democracies continued to grow.
Iron Curtain Another Possible War • March 1946, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave speech in U.S. • Churchill used image of iron curtain to describe the division of Europe as result of Soviet actions • Said this was serious threat to peace • Tension worsened by Soviet failure to remove troops from northern Iran • January 1946, President Truman warned “Another war is in the making.” • February 1946, Stalin stated publicly he believed war between East, West bound to happen More Tension
The Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan • Early 1947, Soviet backed Communists threatened governments of Greece, Turkey • President Truman announced TrumanDoctrine—pledge to provide economic, military aid to oppose spread of communism • Congress agreed to send aid to Greece, Turkey • Because of post-war economies, Truman believed more European countries might turn to communism • U.S. launched massive program of economic aid • Marshall Plan provided $13 billion for rebuilding Europe • Plan helped Western Europe make rapid recovery from war, preserved political stability The West Resists The democratic nations of the West soon faced a test of their resolve to contain the Communist East.
Summarize How did conflict between East and West worsen after World War II? Answer(s): Communism spread to most of Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union would not withdraw troops from Iran, the West resists with Truman Doctrine, aid to Turkey and Greece
Crisis in Berlin West Berlin Blockade • Division of Germany, Berlin originally meant to be temporary • 1947, Western leaders began planning creation of independent democratic German nation • Also planned democratic government in West Berlin • June 1948, Soviets blocked off land, rail, water routes into West Berlin to force West to leave Berlin • Western leaders organized Berlin airlift to supply Berlin by air • Airlift successful; Soviets called off blockade May, 1949 Cold War Confrontations • Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan demonstrated West’s Cold War policy, containment • Containment involved resisting Soviet aggression in order to contain spread of communism • Confrontations between East, West soon became increasingly severe
New Nations and Alliances Germany and NATO • At end of Berlin crisis, western zones of Germany formed Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany • Soviet zone became German Democratic Republic, or East Germany • U.S., Canada, most Western European countries joined in military alliance—North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO—designed to counter Soviet power in Europe • 1955, Soviet Union, Communist nations of Eastern Europe formed own alliance, Warsaw Pact
War in Korea • Division of Korea • Allies gained control of Korea after Japan’s World War II surrender • Soviet Union, U.S. agreed to temporarily divide country in half • Soviets established Communist government in north; U.S. supported non-Communist regime in south • Eisenhower’s Warning • June 1950, North Koreans attacked South Korea • U.S. asked United Nations to approve use of force to stop invasion • Eisenhower: “We’ll have a dozen Koreas soon if we don’t take a firm stand.” • MacArthur at Inchon • UN formed military force; troops from 17 nations sent to Korea • North Koreans nearly conquered south within matter of months • American general Douglas MacArthur, UN forces landed behind enemy lines at Inchon; tipped balance back in favor of UN forces
UN Responds • Push Back • UN forces pushed North Koreans out of south • Drove deep into North Korea near Chinese border • War Shifts Again • War shifted again when Communist Chinese came to aid of North Korea • Drove UN forces out of north • Stalemate • 1951, war settled into stalemate • Battle lines lay about where they had been before North Korea’s initial invasion • End of War • 1953, both sides agreed to armistice; war over • Little changed during war • North remained Communist state; South, ally of West
Summarize What were some Cold War confrontations of the 1940s and 1950s? Answer(s): Soviet blockade of West Berlin, Berlin airlift, Korean War
Superpower Rivalries Main Idea As the Cold War continued, the world’s two superpowers—the Soviet Union and the United States—competed for power and influence around the world. • Reading Focus • How did the arms race begin in the 1950s and early 1960s? • How did the Cold War contribute to conflict around the world? • How did the superpowers attempt to achieve arms control during the Cold War?
The Nuclear Arms Race Hydrogen Bomb • 1949, Soviets successfully tested atomic bomb • Great military advantage of U.S. over Soviet Union gone • U.S. sought to develop even more powerful weapons • Atomic bombs used energy created by splitting atoms • Nuclear fusion—larger explosion • 1952, U.S. tested first fusion-powered hydrogen bomb, vaporizing island on which tested The Arms Race Begins During the 1950s and early 1960s nuclear war seemed to draw ever closer as the Soviet Union and the United States raced to develop powerful new weapons. This rivalry between the world’s two superpowers became increasingly tense—and dangerous. The U.S. technological advantage was short-lived. Less than one year later the Soviets tested their own hydrogen bomb.
Change in Tactics • Both sides forced to change military tactics • Could no longer rely on conventional forces, like troops, tanks • U.S., Soviets increased stockpiles of nuclear weapons • Nuclear weapons central to deterrence • Strategy of Deterrence • Deterrence, development of or maintenance of military power to prevent attack • Two superpowers locked in arms race to gain advantage in weapons • U.S. had more weapons, but nuclear attack by either side would lead to terrible destruction
Sputnik Public Fears • Sputnik, history’s first artificial satellite—object orbiting earth • Soviet military technology now feared to be in the lead • U.S. government established National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA • Agency would eventually return United States to forefront of space research • Growing threat of nuclear war • Significant impact on people • Built bomb shelters to help protect from nuclear explosion • Schools led air-raid drills to prepare for possible Soviet attack • Books, movies, comic books had plots centered on dangers of radiation, nuclear war Soviet Union Launches Sputnik In October 1957 the arms race took another leap forward with the Soviet Union’s successful launch of Sputnik.
Red Scare Cold War led to so-called Red Scare in U.S. • Many Americans feared possible Communist influence in U.S. government • U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy • Prompted congressional committee in effort to expose Communists in American film industry, government, late 1940s, early 1950s • Accused many innocent people of Communist activities
Identify Supporting Details How did the arms race begin? Answer(s): development of atomic and hydrogen bombs
War in Southeast Asia Vietnam Divided American Support • End World War II, France tried to reestablish control over Southeast Asia • Communist rebels in Vietnam fought back, forcing French to give up control • Peace agreement temporarily divided Vietnam in half • Communists controlled North, anti-Communist regime ruled South • U.S. supported South Vietnam, when revolution broke out sent military troops • Eventually North Vietnamese fought alongside rebels • War dragged on until mid–1970s Cold War Around the World The Korean War showed that Cold War rivalry could lead to conflict far from the United States or the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, this rivalry led to struggles for influence in countries around the world.
Another Crisis in Berlin • Crossing Over • After Communist East Germany, democratic West Germany formed in 1949, tens of thousands of East Germans crossed from East to West Berlin • Some wanted to live in free nation, other simply wanted to find work • Berlin Wall • By 1961, up to 1,000 per day made daily trip between homes in East Germany, jobs in West Berlin • To stop exodus, East Germany erected barrier between two halves of city • Communist Brutality • Barrier, Berlin Wall, heavily guarded • Anyone attempting to cross risked being shot by East German guards • Succeeded in slowing flight of East Germans, became symbol of Communist system brutality
Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis • U.S. government secretly trained invasion force to overthrow Castro • April 1961, force came ashore at Cuba’s Bay of Pigs • American officials believed invasion would start uprising against Castro • Instead invaders quickly defeated • 1962, Cuban missile crisis, two week confrontation between U.S., Soviet Union over installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba • After standoff missiles removed; U.S. agreed to remove missiles from Turkey, not attack Cuba Communism in Cuba • 1959, rebels led by Fidel Castro overthrew Cuba’s dictator • Installed Communist government • Centrally planned economy, close ties with Soviets • Actions worried United States; Cuba near Florida coast • Cuba’s alliance with Soviet Union brought Cold War close to American territory
Find the Main Idea How did the Cold War play out around the world? Answer(s): Communism was spreading to many other countries, and the United States became involved in an attempt to stop its spread around the world.
Independence Struggles in Southeast Asia Main Idea Long under colonial domination, many Southeast Asian nations achieved independence in the postwar years. The transition, however, was not always a smooth one. • Reading Focus • How did independence come to Southeast Asia? • What were the main causes of the Vietnam War? • How has Southeast Asia changed in recent decades?
End of Colonial Presence Colonial Powers • During war, Japanese occupied these Southeast Asian colonies • Occupation helped weaken grip of European, American powers • Some nations decided to end colonial presence in region at end of war • U.S. granted independence to Philippines; British gave up Burma • Before World War II, Southeast Asia controlled by major colonial powers • Burma, Malaya controlled by British; Philippines by United States; Indonesia was Dutch colony • Modern day countries of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia part of French colony, French Indochina Independence in Southeast Asia
Struggles • Communist rebels in Malaya fought British before achieving independence • Group known as Vietminh fought French troops to win Vietnamese independence • Vietminh leader, Communist Ho Chi Minh • Received assistance from China, Soviet Union • Major goal was independence, not expansion of communism • After years of fighting, Vietminh defeated France; French control of Indochina ended
Make Generalizations How did Southeast Asian nations achieve independence? Answer(s): In some areas, Japanese occupation during World War II helped weaken the grip of the European and American powers in the region. In others, independence came with struggle.
Vietnam’s Future Domino Theory • 1954, representatives from France, Vietnam, U.S., Soviet Union, other nations met to establish peace agreement for Vietnam • Talks reflected Cold War tensions • Worried about spread of communism, Western powers did not want Ho Chi Minh, Communists, to have complete control of Vietnam • Vietnam temporarily divided into northern, southern halves • Communists would control north • Voters to choose government for reunited Vietnam in 1956 • President Eisenhower warned if Vietnam fell to communism, other Southeast Asian nations would quickly follow • Belief that communism would spread called domino theory The Vietnam War Fighting with France was over, but conflict was not—Ho Chi Minh’s dream of a united, independent Vietnam would be achieved only after years of war.
Fighting Begins • U.S. supported South Vietnam • U.S. supported South Vietnam to keep from being taken over by North • South Vietnam leader Ngo Dinh Diem prevented 1956 election • Also made enemies with corrupt, brutal rule • Vietcong • Diem’s enemies formed Vietcong, “Vietnamese Communist”—not all Vietcong Communists; all shared goal of overthrowing Diem, reuniting Vietnam • Soon North Vietnamese entered South Vietnam, fought alongside Vietcong • Fighting Escalates • As Vietcong influence spread, U.S. increased aid to South Vietnam • Also sent thousands of military advisors to help South Vietnamese forces • August 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson informed Congress two U.S. Navy ships subject of unprovoked attack by North Vietnamese gunboats
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • True, one U.S. ship fired on by North Vietnamese; second attack seems to have been misunderstanding • Johnson did not mention full facts, Congress passed Gulf of Tonkin Resolution—gave Johnson power to expand U.S. involvement without formal declaration of war • American Presence in Vietnam • American military presence in Vietnam grew quickly, hundreds of thousands of combat troops sent to region • Increased U.S. involvement forced North Vietnam, Vietcong to change military strategy • Rather than press for quick victory, focused on outlasting enemies
Weakened Support Opposition Grew • American leaders had claimed victory in Vietnam close at hand • Tet Offensive dramatically showed this was not case • Attacks greatly weakened American public support for war • After Tet Offensive, war expanded into Laos, Cambodia • North Vietnamese had supply network—Ho Chi Minh Trail • U.S. efforts to destroy trail failed • More Americans opposed war Tet: A Turning Point • 1968, North Vietnamese army, Vietcong carried out daring strike against cities, other targets across South Vietnam • Attack began on Vietnamese New Year, called Tet—came to be known as Tet Offensive • Offensive military setback for Vietcong; still delivered heavy political blow to U.S., South Vietnamese effort
Vietnam War Ends • End of War • 1973, after long negotiations, U.S. reached peace agreement with North Vietnam, withdrew military support; without support, South lost ground • 1975, North Vietnamese tanks rolled into Saigon, ending war • After the War • 1976, Vietnam reunited officially, but faced major problems • Millions dead or made homeless; Vietnamese economy severely crippled • 1980s, abandoned Soviet-style planned economy, made economic reforms • Still Communist Nation • 1995, U.S. formally recognized united Vietnam • Two nations agreed to improve trade relationship • Many economic reforms; political reforms slow for Communist nation
Make Generalizations Summarize the course of the Vietnam War. Answer(s): United States feared Communists would take control of South Vietnam; war began and U.S. involvement increased; American public opposition to the war grew; United States removed troops; North Vietnamese took control of South Vietnam.
Rebuilding Society Constitutional Monarchy • Goal: country of simple peasants • To achieve goal, all influences of urban life, modern civilization had to be destroyed • All opposition destroyed • Anyone educated killed • 1.5 million died • Conflict between Khmer Rouge, Vietnam turned into war • 1979, Vietnam invaded Cambodia, forced Pol Pot from power • Pol Pot led Khmer Rouge guerrillas in civil war throughout 1980s • Now rebuilding Cambodia • Cambodia endured years of struggle after winning independence from France in 1953 • In 1975 Communist Khmer Rouge gained control of country • Khmer Rouge established Communist government led by Pol Pot • Renamed country Kampuchea • Began radical program to rebuild Cambodian society
Early Arms Control Test Ban Treaty • Eisenhower proposed open skies treaty with Soviet Union • Each side could fly over other’s territory, gather accurate weapons information • With accurate information, neither side would have to imagine worst about enemy • Soviets rejected proposal • Soviet leaders proposed total nuclear disarmament • United States rejected idea • President Kennedy favored limited nuclear weapons tests • Cuban missile crisis convinced both sides important to make arms control progress • 1963 U.S., Soviets agreed on Test Ban Treaty Attempts at Arms Control While relations between East and West were largely hostile throughout the Cold War, some attempts at cooperation were made.
SALT I and SALT II • SALT I • U.S. President Richard Nixon sought détente, reduced tension between superpowers; started negotiations called Strategic Arms Limitations Talks • SALT I talks led to agreements limiting nuclear weapons held by each side • ABM Treaty • Also led to Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, preventing development of weapons designed to shoot down nuclear missiles • Meant to ensure each side remained vulnerable to other’s nuclear weapons • SALT II • Vulnerability important element of principle of deterrence • Two sides began new round of talks called SALT II • Talks resulted in arms control treaty in 1979: never ratified by U.S. Senate
The 1980s • Reagan Presidency • Reagan took aggressive position against Soviet Union • Wanted to develop missile defense system • Arms Reduction Talks • Idea of system seemed to violate spirit of ABM Treaty • Began arms reduction talks with Soviet leader Gorbachev • INF Treaty • 1988, two countries ratified Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty • Called for elimination of certain types of missiles • Improving Relations • After many years of conflict, relationship between U.S., Soviet Union began to improve
Sequence What were the major arms control agreements negotiated by the Soviet Union and the United States? Answer(s): Test Ban Treaty, SALT I, reducing the number of nuclear weapons each side held, ABM Treaty that prevented the development of weapons that shoot down nuclear missiles
Communist China Main Idea China has undergone many changes since becoming a Communist nation in 1949. today, after making many market reforms, China has a rapidly growing economy. • Reading Focus • How did the Communists take over China? • What were the main events that took place in China under Mao’s leadership? • How did China change in the years after Mao’s death?
Civil War Resumes Public Support • Once Japan defeated, civil war resumed • Guomindang forces outnumbered Mao’s Communists, but Communists had wide support among China’s peasants • Rural Chinese peasants had long been oppressed by brutal landlords, high taxes, policies of Jiang Jieshi’s corrupt government • Communists promised to take land from landlords, distribute to peasants • By 1949, Communists had driven Guomindang almost entirely from China • Guomindang control limited to small areas on mainland, several islands, including Taiwan Communists Take Over China During World War II the Chinese Communists and the nationalist Guomindang put aside differences to fight Japanese invaders.
Opposition to Mao People’s Republic of China • China faced many difficulties, including crippled economy, lack of functional government • Some countries opposed to communism refused to recognize Mao • Claimed Jiang’s government on Taiwan was true Chinese government • October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong stood before huge crowd in Beijing • Announced formation of People’s Republic of China • Mao’s strategy of guerrilla warfare in rural China Communists Take Over China