Exploring Race and Ethnicity-Part 2-C1. Discussion Outline. Ranking Groups Types of Groups The Social Construction of Race Biracial and Multiracial Identity Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity The Creation and Consequences of Subordinate Group Status.
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Discussion Outline • Ranking Groups • Types of Groups • The Social Construction of Race • Biracial and Multiracial Identity • Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity • The Creation and Consequences of Subordinate Group Status
IV. Biracial and Multiracial Identity • Increasing willingness and acceptance towards multiracial identities • The Census Bureau • Racial formation continues • Group names and labels undergo change
Challenges to racial and ethnic Identity: • Panethnicity • Marginality • Racial and ethnic labels are socially constructed, yet have a powerful impact and consequences
V. Sociology and the Study of race and Ethnicity • The history of the study of race in Sociology • Intertwined with a study on stratification by class and gender • Social Stratification • Class • Gender • The matrix of Domination
Figure 12-4: Matrix of Domination Source: Developed by author.
Theoretical Perspectives • The Functionalist Perspective emphasizes how parts of a society are structured to maintain stability • Societal aspects exist to contribute to a societies survival-passed on between generations • Then why is bigotry and racism persist? Does a serve a positive function?
5 functions for dominant group or racists • provide a moral justification for inequality • discourage subordinate people from questioning their status • serve as a rallying point for racist social movements • encourage support for the existing order • relieve the dominant group of responsibility to address the economic and educational problems faced by subordinate groups
Dysfunctions: elements of society that disrupt a social system or decrease its stability. • 1. A society that practices discrimination fails to use the resources of all individuals. • 2. Discrimination aggravates social problems such as poverty, delinquency, and crime. • 3. Society must invest a good deal of time and money to defend the barriers that prevent the full participation of all members. • 4. Prejudice and discrimination undercut goodwill and friendly diplomatic relations between nations, including global trade. • 5. Social change is inhibited because change may assist a subordinate group. • 6. Discrimination promotes disrespect for law enforcement and for the peaceful settlement of disputes.
Theoretical Perspectives • Conflict Theory assumes that society is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between privileged and exploited groups • Competition and conflict result in economic inequality and inequality in education, labor market, housing, and healthcare delivery • Conflict theorists emphasize social change
Conflict Theory • Blaming the victim: portraying the problems of minorities as their fault rather than recognizing society’s responsibility. • From the conflict perspective, the emphasis should be on structural factors such as • the labor market • affordable housing • availability of programs to assist with addiction or mental health issues
Theoretical Perspectives: Labeling Theory • Certain groups are more at risk of being labeled depending on race, ethnicity, social class, age, etc • Labeling involves the use of stereotypes - unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account • “Definition of the Situation” – W.I. Thomas observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation (or person) but also to the meaning these features have for them • Labels can lead to self fulfilling prophecy
VI. The Creation of Subordinate Group Status • Migration - transfer or movement of people within or across borders • Annexation - nations, particularly during wars or as a result of war, incorporate or attach land • the dominant power generally suppresses the language and culture of the minority • Colonialism - political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people by a foreign power for an extended period • Societies gain power over a foreign land through military strength, sophisticated political organization, and investment capital.
The Consequences of Subordinate Group Status • Extermination • Expulsion • Secession
Segregation • Fusion • Assimilation
Resistance and Change • Resistance occurs through: • racial and ethnic groups maintaining their identity • people questioning societal values • people targeting overt symbols or racist and sexist actions • social movements