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THE COLD WAR. THE COLD WAR. What was it & why did it happen? Part I. What was the COLD WAR?. Who was it between? The US (and their allies) vs. USSR (and their allies) What were they doing? State of conflict, tension and competition When did this occur? 1940s-early 1990s

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THE COLD WAR


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    1. THE COLD WAR

    2. THE COLD WAR What was it & why did it happen? Part I

    3. What was the COLD WAR? • Who was it between? • The US (and their allies) vs. USSR (and their allies) • What were they doing? • State of conflict, tension and competition • When did this occur? • 1940s-early 1990s • Why were they fighting? • Each country wanted to spread and promote its goals and influence around the world

    4. What was the COLD WAR? • How did they “fight” a cold war? • Military coalitions • Espionage • Weapons development • Technological development • Space Race • Also included “proxy” wars • Nuclear arms race • And of course….PROPAGANDA

    5. Cold War Propaganda – Pop Culture Nikolai Volkoff Hulk Hogan 1980 US Hockey

    6. Cold War Propaganda – Movies

    7. An Iron Curtain • Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech marks the start of the Cold War • Speech given in Missouri • Symbolized the ideological boundary separating Europe post WWII • Expressed the vast philosophical ideologies

    8. Soviet Expansion • Stalin expresses desire to create “buffer zone” of “friendly nations” • Satellite nations • Actually under the control of the Soviet Union

    9. How did the U.S. view Stalin and his Communist regime?

    10. The Soviet Union point-of-view “All communist parties must take the lead in resisting the plans of American imperialist expansion and aggression in all spheres…its basic aim is the establishment of the world domination of American imperialism and the smashing of our freedom (1947).”

    11. The Cold War – The 1940s The Early Stages Part II

    12. Important Events of 1946 • Greece • Civil war • Communists attempting to overthrow the gov’t • Turkey • Soviet Union makes territorial demands • Canada • Soviet spy ring is exposed

    13. Early US Response • Containment (1946) • Established by George Kennan • Goal was to restrict Soviet expansion

    14. Early US Cold War Policies • Marshall Plan (1947) • European Recovery Program • $17 Billion in aid • Aid is offered to USSR (refused) • No aid is given to communist governments of Eastern Europe

    15. How do the Russians interpret the Marshall Plan?

    16. Soviet Response to the Marshall Plan They believed the U.S. was trying to bribe European countries to accept capitalism and democracy

    17. The Soviet Union in Eastern Europe • Soviet Union troops crush uprisings in • Hungary (1956) • Poland (1956)

    18. NATO & Warsaw

    19. What is NATO? • Official Name • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Purpose • Military Alliance • Attack on one of them is an attack on all • Membership – • Formed in 1949 • US, France, United Kingdom, Canada, West Germany, and others

    20. What is the Warsaw Pact? • Official Name • The Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance • Also known as the Warsaw Treaty Organization • Purpose • Military alliance • The Soviet Union’s response to NATO • Membership – • Established in 1955 • Soviet Union, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Albania, and the Czechoslovak Republic

    21. Crisis in Germany

    22. Crisis in Berlin • USSR opposes Allied plan to create West German govt. • (6/1948) USSR blocks traffic to and from W. Berlin • Berlin Airlift – Allies drop 2 tons of food over 10 month period • 1949 – German division = West Germany and East Germany (USSR) • 1955 West Germany granted full independence

    23. The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

    24. The Berlin Wall • Built 1961 – stood until 1989 • Built to surround the Western half of the capital city of Berlin • Barred travel for all East Germans to the West • Could only travel to West with gov’t pass • Most were denied • Initially a wire fence, concrete wall starting 1965 • 5,000 people successfully defected, 100 – 200 deaths trying to escape

    25. THE BERLIN WALL

    26. Communism in China • Mao Zedong led communists • US attempted to aid the Chinese who fought Communism • 1949 – The People’s Republic of China • Communist government

    27. The Cold War – The 1950s The Arms & Space Race Part IV

    28. “The Bomb” • The Nuclear Arms Race Begins • USSR test “atomic bomb” in August 1949 • US gov’t educates public on how to respond to a nuclear attack • “Duck and Cover” and “fall-out” shelters • US tests Hydrogen bomb in 1952 • USSR tests their own H-Bomb in 1953

    29. “Duck and Cover” and Fall-out Shelters

    30. Eisenhower and a New Philosophy • President Eisenhower • Vowed to liberate all countries that fell to USSR control since 1954 • CIA used to gather strategic info and pursue Cold War goals • Brinkmanship • “The ability to get to the verge [brink] w/o getting into war is a necessary art”

    31. The CIA & The Cold War • CIA used military power and influence to install pro-US governments • The Shah in Iran in 1951 • Guatemala in 1954 • US U-2 spy plane shot down over Russia in 1960 • Pilot Gary Powers served almost 2 yrs and was exchanged for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel

    32. Nikita Khrushchev 1953 - 1964

    33. The Space Race • Nikita Khrushchev new USSR leader • Beginning of the Space Race • Sputnik – 1957 • First satellite in space • Sputnik II – 1957 • Dog on board • US responds • Explorer I (1958) • Man on the Moon (1969)

    34. The Cold War Turns HOT!

    35. War in Korea (1950-1953) • Japanese control Korea 1910-1945 • Post WWII • Soviet controlled North (Kim Il Sung) • Allied controlled South (Syngman Rhee) • Divided at the 38th Parallel @ Potsdam Conference • 6/25/1950 North invades the South • Truman and the UN pledge support to South Korea

    36. Fighting in Korea • General MacArthur led US forces in Korea • U.S. 350,000 • Total Forces • ~800,000 • North Koreans forces • Aid from USSR • Aid from China • Enters the war in November

    37. Fighting in Korea • Fighting turns to stalemate • Near the 38th parallel • Peace talks began in 1951 • Agreement finally on 6/27/1953 • Results of the war • 54,000 US deaths • Stalemate – little land was won/lost on both sides • North and South Korea remained divided

    38. The Cold War in the 1960s Crisis and More War Part V

    39. The Cold War under President Kennedy • Continued a nuclear arms buildup • Increased US participation in Vietnam • Created aid programs for developing countries

    40. The Cuban Missile Crisis • Soviet Missiles could not reach US from Soviet Union • Began constructing missile launching pads in Cuba • US could hit USSR via missile bases in Turkey

    41. Results of the Soviet bases gave USSR range to attack the US

    42. The Cuban Missile Crisis • United States U-2 spy plane captures the building of the pads on 10/14/1962, • JFK institutes a blockade of Cuba on 10/22 • Soviet Union sent ships to deliver more materials to Cuba • Two days of tension as nuclear war looms

    43. The Cuban Missile Crisis • Soviet ships turn away before reaching the blockade on 10/24 • US removed missiles from Turkey • USSR removed missiles from Cuba

    44. The Soviet Union • Soviet and Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia (1968) • Crush a “liberalization” movement • The "Brezhnev Doctrine“ • Established by Leonid Brezhnev • Head of the Politburo 1964-1982 • USSR can intervene in other communist states if communism is threatened in any way

    45. The Vietnam War (1959-1975) • Why does the US get involved? • The Domino Theory • If North took South it would trigger the further spread of communism

    46. The Vietnam War • Sides of the war • North Vietnam • Communist leader Ho Chi Minh • Aid from USSR • Also had allies in the South • Known as the Vietcong • South Vietnam • Dictator Ngo Dinh Diem • Aid from the US