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Projekt Posodobitev gimnazije – Gimnazija Curriculum Development Project. EUROPEAN CLASSES PROJECT: PHASE TWO. Ljubljana, 7/4 - 2009 Katja Pavlič Škerjanc, katja.pavlic@zrss.si.

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projekt posodobitev gimnazije gimnazija curriculum development project

Projekt Posodobitev gimnazije – Gimnazija Curriculum Development Project

EUROPEAN CLASSES PROJECT:

PHASE TWO

Ljubljana, 7/4 - 2009

Katja Pavlič Škerjanc, katja.pavlic@zrss.si

Operacijo delno financira Evropska unija iz Evropskega socialnega sklada ter Ministrstvo za šolstvo in šport. Operacija se izvaja v okviru Operativnega programa razvoja človeških virov v obdobju 2007-2013, razvojne prioritete: Razvoj človeških virov in vseživljenjsko učenje; prednostne usmeritve: Izboljšanje kakovosti in učinkovitosti sistemov izobraževanja in usposabljanja.

current innovative projects
CURRENT INNOVATIVE PROJECTS …
  • Major upper-secondary general education curricula modernization currently under way
    • run by the National Education Institute and funded mostly from the European Structural Funds (European Social Fund, ESF
  • Two projects with a strong European and global dimension implemented nation-wide:
    • European Classes, an approach to curriculum innovation through integration and modularization
    • Communication in Foreign Languages - Implementing innovative approaches to foreign language teaching through foreign teachers inclusion into the school curriculum
k ey concepts 1
AUTHENTICITY OF LEARNING

goals

content

activities

assessment

environment

European and global dimension

intercultural communication: crosscultural (intra- in inter-cultural) encounters and cooperation

integrative curriculum: multidisciplinarity- interdisciplinarity - transdisciplinarity

collaborative teaching (many forms, including team work and pair teaching)

inquiry-based learning and project approach to teaching and learning

diverse learning tools (ICT and others)

information/digital/media literacy

KEY CONCEPTS - 1

Gimnazija program adaptation

E UROPEANCLASSES

key concepts 2
KEY CONCEPTS - 2

School development –Pilot projects –

Dissemination of results

  • Intercultural (communicative) competence
  • Authenticity (oflearninggoalsandobjectives, learningsituations, assessment)
  • Languageacrossthecurriculum(content-basedlanguagelearning, discipline literacydevelopment)
  • School curriculum(planning – implementation – monitoring – evaluation- dissemination)
  • Integrative curriculum(cross-curricular connections – intra- and interdisciplinary cooperation)
  • Cooperative teaching
    • Team teaching
  • Project approach(to teaching and learning)
aims and goals of the project foreign teachers
Aimsandgoalsoftheproject“FOREIGN TEACHERS”
  • upgrading the quality of foreign language teaching in Slovenia by innovative approaches, based on
    • an enhanced authenticity of learning situations (communication with a native speaker of the target language or a non-native speaker with FL1 other than Slovene and using the target language as a lingua franca)

and

    • cooperative teaching in multicultural teams (Slovene & foreign teachers of foreign languages, Slovene teachers of non-language subjects & foreign teachers of foreign languages);
  • developinga systemic approach to foreign teachers inclusion into the Slovene educational system - piloting alternative organizational options
slide6

EUROPEAN CLASSES,

anapproach to curriculuminnovationthroughintegrationandmodularization

european classes project
EUROPEAN CLASSES PROJECT
  • pilot projectin upper-secondary general education(gimnazija: 4-year program, studentsaged 15-19):
    • set up to supplementthe program withnew program elementsandinnovativeapproaches to teachingandlearning,
    • designedbytheNationalEducation Institute ofSlovenia,
    • approvedbytheNationalCouncilofExpertsfor General Education,
    • launched in 2004/05 bythe Minister ofEducationandSport(to beevaluated in 2008/09),
    • implemented in 16 schools (outofeligible 54),
    • prolongedfor 2 yearsin Dec. 2008 (2009/10–2010/11)
    • and to bepiloted at 19 schools.
ecp schools 2009 2011
ECP SCHOOLS2009-2011
  • Gimnazija Bežigrad Ljubljana
  • Gimnazija Brežice
  • Gimnazija Franca Miklošiča Ljutomer
  • Gimnazija Jesenice
  • Gimnazija Kočevje
  • Gimnazija Koper
  • Gimnazija Nova Gorica
  • Gimnazija Poljane Ljubljana
  • Gimnazija Ptuj
  • Gimnazija Škofja Loka (od šolskega leta 2006/07 dalje)
  • II. gimnazija Maribor
  • Prva gimnazija Maribor
  • Šolski center Rudolf Maister Kamnik, Gimnazija
  • Škofijska gimnazija Antona Martina Slomška Maribor (od šolskega leta 2006/07 dalje)
  • Šolski center Celje, Gimnazija Lava
  • Šolski center Slovenj Gradec, Gimnazija

Šole, ki se vključijo v izvajanje projekta s šolskim letom 2009/10:

  • Gimnazija Novo mesto
  • Gimnazija Jurija Vege Idrija
  • Gimnazija Kranj
k ey concepts
AUTHENTICITY

OF LEARNING

goals

content

activities

assessment

environment

European and global dimension

intercultural communication: crosscultural (intra- in inter-cultural) encounters and cooperation

integrative curriculum: multidisciplinarity-interdisciplinarity - transdisciplinarity

collaborative teaching (many forms, including team work and pair teaching)

inquiry-based learning and project approach to teaching and learning

diverse learning tools (ICT…)

information/digital/media literacy

KEY CONCEPTS

Gimnazija program adaptation

E UROPEANCLASSES

slide10

PT

Jesenice

PT

Koper

PT

Nova Gorica

PT

Brežice

PT Ljutomer

PT

Ptuj

PT Slovenj Gradec

PT Celje

PT Kočevje

PT

Lj

Poljane

PT

Lj

Bežigrad

PT Kamnik

PT

Mb

I. gimn.

PT

Mb

II. gimn.

German language WG

European Studies WG

English WG

Intercultural Education WG

Project Team coordinators

French WG

Slovene language WG

PROJECT STRUCTURE

NationalEducation Institute PROJECT TEAM

Project Manager

Core & Extended PG

◄externalcollaborators

(teachersfromparticipatingschools)

WorkingGroups (WG)

School Project Teams

Gimnazija program adaptation

E UROPEAN CLASSES

european classes project1
EUROPEAN CLASSES PROJECT
  • Theoverarchinggoal is thesearchforneworganisationalsolutionsandinnovativeimplementationapproaches at alllevels,
    • fromthestructureofthe program (“Structure is strategy.”),
    • theplacementand role ofbothsubjectareas as well as individualsubjectswithinthe program
    • to thelay-outofsubjectsyllabi, which in thecaseofthenewelectivesfaithfullyfollow a competence-basedapproachanddifferentiatedlevelsofautonomy, as well as
    • thelearningandteachingapproachesandmethods.
european classes project introducing changes into the
EUROPEANCLASSES PROJECT:INTRODUCING CHANGES INTO THE
  • goals of the gimnazija curriculum
  • structure of the curriculum
  • subjects (structure, aims & objectives)
  • didactics
introducing changes into
INTRODUCING CHANGES INTO …
  • CURRICULUM GOALS:
  • European and global dimension
    • from Slovenia’s point of view (enabling students to promote Slovene culture in Europe and the world – developing their cultural knowledge as well as communicative and social skills)
  • intercultural communication
    • by involving native speakers - teachers from other countries/cultures - and making intercultural encounters, direct and indirect, a part of the mandatory curriculum
  • synthetic thinking - holistic knowledge
    • through integrated curriculum and collaborative (interdisciplinary) teaching
introducing changes into1
INTRODUCING CHANGES INTO …

 CURRICULUM STRUCTURE:

  • integrated curriculum
  • changed role of the flexible (elective) component
    • interconnectedness of elective subjects

- linking their

        • aims and objectives
        • content
        • instruction
subject modules
SUBJECT MODULES
  • Modularaproach:
  • openness
  • andflexibility
    • core
    • elective
    • optional
  • increasinglevelofteacherautonomy
    • increasinglevelofflexibility
introducing changes into2
INTRODUCING CHANGES INTO …

 SUBJECTS:

  • newelectives - ECP specific
  • multidisciplinary, interdisciplinaryandtransdisciplinaryapproach
    • integratinginstructionofdisciplinesas well as
    • traditionallyseparatedisciplinesintonewsubjects
  • upgradingthetaxonomyof FLL goals
    • CBLL content-based languagelearning
    • (F)LAC (foreign) languageacrossthecurriculum
introducing changes
INTRODUCING CHANGES …

 NEW ELECTIVES (ECP specific):

  • ForeignLanguage in Focus:

English, German, French, Italian, Spanish.Russian

    • FL: Slovenia in theWorld
    • FL: CultureandCivilization
  • Slovene
    • Social RolesofSlovene
    • Slovene Literature in Translations
  • EuropeanStudies
    • citizenship & human rightseducation, environmentalissuesetc.
introducing changes into3
INTRODUCING CHANGES INTO …

 DIDACTICS:

  • collaborativeteaching
  • authenticlearning & assessment:
    • activelearning
    • inquiry-basedlearning
    • problem-basedlearning
    • collaborativelearning
    • projectapproach …
foreign teachers of foreign languages in slovene schools
FOREIGN TEACHERS (of foreign languages) IN SLOVENE SCHOOLS

Seeking employment: Whom to turn to?

Teaching jobs?

Comeniuslanguageassistants(Europeanfunding)

DSD teachers(nationalfunding)

Austrian FL teachers(nationalfunding)

Foreign FL teachers in Europeanclasses(nationalfunding)

Foreign FL teachers(Europeanfunding - ESF)

  • CMEPIUS(= Centre oftheRepublicofSloveniaforMobilityandEuropeanEducationalandTrainingprogrammes)
  • MinistryofEducationandSport, International Cooperation and European Affairs Service (bilateral in multilateralco-operation: BronkaStraus)
  • TheNationalEducation Institute, Centre forDevelopmentandResearch, Katja Pavlič Škerjanc
foreign teacher role and tasks
FOREIGN TEACHER: ROLE AND TASKS
  • The foreign teacher is an autonomous, independent expert, expected to contribute creatively and innovatively to the quality of foreign language teaching and the school development project.
  • He/She is non only an ambassador of the culture he/she comes from but also an active promoter of multiculturality and interculturality.
  • He/She (co)-teaches in all parts of the curriculum:
    • core and elective (80% of the direct instruction/teaching workload),
    • optional (up to 10 % of the teaching workload) and
    • extra-curricular activities (up to 10 % of the teaching workload).

Like Slovene teachers, foreign teachers will be required to be available for work at all times when the school is open and at other such times as the principal/headteacher or governing body may reasonably direct.

work obligations hours of work
WORK OBLIGATIONS - HOURS OF WORK
  • full working hours (40 hours per week)
  • which equals 20 teaching hours per week at a secondary school (and 22 teaching hours per week at a primary school) plus other obligatory working activities
  • on the basis of collaborative teaching with Slovene teachers of foreign languages and non-language subjects (favoured approaches: LAC language across the curriculum: CBLL content-based language learning, interdisciplinary teaching/learning, discipline literacy development, project-based teaching/learning etc.)
foreign teacher
“FOREIGN” TEACHER?
  • Native speaker vs.TEACHER ?
    • foreign language teacher OR
    • subject teacher with a FL teaching certificate?
  • Monocultural vs.intercultural teacher?
  • Target language =
    • first (mother) tongue?
    • second language (bilingual – bicultural speakers)?
    • foreign language (but with a first/second language and culture other than Slovene)?
teacher s knowledge
knowledge of content

knowledge of learners & learning

knowledge of general pedagogy

knowledge of curriculum

knowledge of context

knowledge of self

(1995)

Teachers should be able to:

work with information, technology and knowledge;

work with their fellow human beings – learners, colleagues and other partners in

education;

work with and in society - at local, regional, national, European and broader global levels.

◄ TEACHER’S KNOWLEDGE

TEACHER COMPETENCES ►

Common European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications (2005)

http://www.see-educoop.net/education_in/pdf/01-en_principles_en.pdf

slide27

Teacher’s knowledgeGrossman, P. L. (1995). Teachers' knowledge. In L. W. Anderson (Ed.), International encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education (2nd ed., pp. 20-24).

slide28
Innovative Projects in Slovene Upper-Secondary General Education: A CO-EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH TO CURRICULUM INNOVATION
co evolutionary approach to curriculum innovation
CO-EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH TO CURRICULUM INNOVATION

Pilot projects are designed and implemented with three complementary goals in mind:

  • by aiming to improve the curricula as well as the teaching and learning process they address students,
  • at the same time motivating and supporting teachers in their continuous professional development and capacity building
  • and providing project managers (national education authorities and research & development agencies) with the pragmatic knowledge and skills of the teachers and headteachers(ie. aligning beliefs about the potential for effective action with the lessons of past and present experience).
purpose and aims of innovative projects
Purpose and aims of innovative projects:
  • to meetbothdeficiencyandgrowthneeds:
    • personalisethecurriculum: increaseschoolautonomy as well as curriculumflexibilityandopenness, ie. scopeandnumberofoptionsforschoolsandindividualstudents(core – elective – optional → modularstructure);
    • make thecurriculum more authenticforthestudents: providemeaningfulcontexts – bringthe real worldintotheclassroom(and vice versa);
    • integratethecurriculum: increaseitsflexibility to overcomefragmentationofknowledge(set up curricularconnections, eg. transversalcompetences as cross-curriculargoals);
  • to provideconvincingproofsofconceptsandideasand, finally, a fullyfunctioningprototype.
school development projects
SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

With a developmentproject, a school

  • introduceschange(s)
  • intotheusual (everyday, established) teachingandlearningprocess(es)
  • in a plannedandsystematicway
  • to raise – directly or indirectly - thequalityofstudentlearningandoutcomes
change and different roles of teachers
Change and Different Roles of Teachers

Teachers participating in development projects are expected to assume different roles:

  • teachers,
  • change agents,
  • course designers,
  • materials providers,
  • researchers,
  • evaluators.
  • Teachers as reflectivepractitioners
  • Schools as learningorganisations
collaborative teaching
COLLABORATIVETEACHING

Intra- andinterdisciplinarycollaborativeteaching- teacherscooperateandcollaborate:

  • to fightknowledgeobsolescenceandsharetheburdenofkeeping up withtheknowledgeexplosion
  • to increasetheauthenticityoflearningthroughinterdisciplinaryteachingandcurriculumintegration
  • to ensure/providecontinuousprofessionaldevelopmentthroughpeerlearning
developing cooperative school culture team diversity
Developingcooperativeschoolculture: TEAM DIVERSITY

Subject /

Subject area teams

Teaching teams

Project teams

defining cooperation
DEFINING COOPERATION …
  • Team teaching is one oftheformsofcollaborativeteaching.
  • Collaborativeteaching is one oftheformsteamwork.
    • Anygroupofpeopleworkingtogether is not a team!
  • There are differenttypesofteamteaching.
  • Eachtypeofteamteachinghasdifferentforms/models.
school organizational culture as the epicenter of change harris 2002
SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREas the “epicenter ofchange” (Harris 2002)
  • Individualism and collectivism as two opposite/disparate poles/dimensions (in individuals - groups - society/cultures)
  • ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES (Hargreaves, Bečaj et al.):
    • individualistic (► isolated teaching)
    • balkanized
    • culture of encouraged/elicited collaboration
    • collaborative culture (►collaborative – team teaching)

Fromisolatedfowardscollaborativeteaching

Students’ learningoutcomes are directlylinkedwiththedegreeofprofessionalcollaborationamongteachers.

slide42

Essential Questions:►What kinds of school cultures are most supportive of teacher growth, student learning and school improvement? ► And how do we establish cultures that support positive change among teachers and students?

Individualistic – Stuck schools

  • Learning impoverished
  • Institutionalized conservatism

Collaborative – Moving schools

  • Learning enriched
  • Linked with continuous improvement
warning not all collaborations are equal
Warning: Not all collaborations are equal!

1. Balkanization

2. Comfortablecollaboration

3. Contrived collegiality

commitment to change
COMMITMENT TO CHANGE

The three developmental phases are defined as follows:

  • INFORM Phase:This phase forms the foundation for later development of support for the change. It prepares people for changing their behavior. It consists mainly of making people aware of change and why it is occurring.
  • EDUCATE Phase: This phase marks a passage into an understanding of what the change means for them. This enables people to begin making decisions about whether to accept or reject the change. During this phase, the stakeholders begin to understand how the change will directly impact them and their routines; and, it will be necessary to present information about the change that promotes a positive perception.
  • COMMIT Phase:The change is implemented during this phase. Everything up to this point has been preparation for the change. During this phase the change is acted upon and becomes part of everyday life for the stakeholders.
the seven commitment stages are
The seven commitment stages are:
  • Contact: The earliest encounter an individual or group has with the fact change is taking place (e.g., an announcement or memo).
  • Awareness: The individual or group has a working knowledge of the change.
  • Understanding: The individual or group demonstrates comprehension of the nature and intent of the change (i.e., what will be expected of them).
  • Positive Perception: The individual or group develops a positive view and disposition toward the change.
  • Adoption: The change has been used long enough to demonstrate its worth and impact on the organization.
  • Institutionalization: The change has durability, and continuity, and has been formally incorporated into the routine operating procedures of the organization.
  • Internalization: Organizational members are highly committed to the change because it is congruent with their personal interest, goals or value system.
slide48
IDEA SHARING

DISCUSSION GROUPS

PEER OBSERVATION

JOINT TEACHING & LEARNING ACTIVITIES

TEACHER EXCHANGES

TEAM TEACHING

Type B team teaching (rotational …)

COLLABORATIVE TEACHING

None of us is as smart as all of us.

Japanese proverb

► Type A teamteaching

= INTERACTIVE TEAM TEACHING

idea sharing
Idea-sharing

Discussiongroups

Planned, structuredandguideddiscussions in groups(permanent or adhoc) on currenttopicsandtopicsofhighimportance/relevance (withfinalplenaryreportsandconclusions to guidefutureactivities)

Organized exchange of ideasas a planned and structured task/activity:

  • Regular exchanges of teaching experiences in the form of
    • presentations at meetings or
    • or materials exchange – joint portfolio of teachers teaching the same subject, participating in a project etc.
  • Task coordinator, either permanent or chosen on a rotational basis, is a must!
fll inter class communicating and swaps
FLL: Inter-classcommunicatingandswaps
  • For oral tests, swap classes with the other teacher.

This can be beneficial for getting an outside view of your learners’ oral competence. It will almost certainly mean that your learners will take the test a lot more seriously.

  • Run friendly competitions between classes.

This could involve trivia quizzes for example. Post the results of each group in the classrooms.

  • Have learners write letters to each other. You can even set up written role plays.

E.g., have one class write a series of job adverts for the other class. The students in the other class decide on which job they would like to apply for and write letters of application, which go back to the first class. This could even be followed up by a face-to-face interview.

  • Have individual learners come and visit the other class from time to time.

They could be interviewed by their new classmates, or make short presentations.

team teaching
voluntaryorcompulsory/mandatory?

part-time (occasional) or full-time (constant)?

intradisciplinary or interdisciplinary?

interactive or rotational?

pair(two teachers) or group(three or more teachers)?

intracultural ali intercultural teams?

MANDATORY?

Full-time or part-time, on the basis of

primary or secondary legislation,

financial provision (by the ministry),

project conditions or requirements,

didactic instructions.

TEAM TEACHING
team teaching1
TEAM TEACHING

= A group of two or more teachers working together to plan, conduct and evaluate the learning activitiesfor the same group of learners.

TWO BASIC TYPES OF TEAM TEACHING :

►TYPE A: two teachers teach the same group of students AT THE SAME TIME and, as a rule (or mostly), in the same place – INTERACTIVE TEAM TEACHING

►TYPE B: two or more teachers COOPERATE CLOSELY in planning, conducting and evaluating the teaching and learning process, but they do not teach the same group of students or the whole group of students or they do not teach the same students at the same time or do not teach the whole course but a part only (here belongs the so–called rotational team teaching)

rationale
RATIONALE

WHAT TO TEACH IN A TEAM (as opposed to single / isolated teaching)?

“Somenthing that I cannot do on my own.”

“Something that I cannot do on my own as well as in a team.”

forms models of interactive team teaching
FORMS/MODELS OF INTERACTIVE TEAM TEACHING
  • Collaborative team teaching
  • Traditionalteam teaching
  • Supportive - complementaryteam teaching
  • Alternating teamteaching
  • Parallel team teaching
  • Differentiated team teaching

Based on Maroney (1995) and Robinson and Schaible (1995) et al.

factors that influence the choice of the team teaching form model
Factors that influence the choice of the team teaching form/model
  • Characteristics, needs and interests of students:
      • hyperactive vs. inert/sluggish classes
  • Characteristics, needs and interests of teachers:
      • very similar vs. higly different teaching styles/teaching philosophies
  • Characteristics and requirements of curricula, syllabi and learning activities:
      • highly structured vs. less structured, open
  • Pragmatic (situational and financial) circumstances:
      • noisiness, space availability, etc.
slide60

Katja Pavlič Škerjanc, 01 3005 148, katja.pavlic@zrss.si

Petra Mikulan, 01 3005 142, petra.mikulan@zrss.si