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Cold War: 1950s. 1952 - 1960. Middle East Situations. Israel (creation background first) Zionists want Jewish state in Palestine Uprooted Jews came here from Europe Sympathy from holocaust helped Britain pressured into ending mandate and does so on May 14, 1948

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Cold war 1950s

Cold War: 1950s

1952 - 1960


Middle east situations
Middle East Situations

  • Israel (creation background first)

    • Zionists want Jewish state in Palestine

    • Uprooted Jews came here from Europe

    • Sympathy from holocaust helped

    • Britain pressured into ending mandate and does so on May 14, 1948

    • Israel created with immediate US & Soviet recognition through UN


Israel
Israel

  • Palestinian Arabs upset

  • Began a series of wars & skirmishes but had little success

  • US became “big brother” under Truman

  • Eisenhower more cautious and practiced “impartial friendliness”


Korean war
Korean War

  • Korean War

    • Ike frustrated with stalemate

    • Threatened to get personally involved

    • Talks held at Panmunjom

      • Settlement reached July 27, 1953

      • DMZ created near 38th parallel


John foster dulles
John Foster Dulles

  • Prominent Sec. of State

  • Saw communism “as an infliction that sought liberation”

  • Threatened “massive nuclear retaliation”, “brinkmanship”, and “more bang for the $”



Problems in indochina1
Problems in Indochina

  • French wanted to regain control of Vietnam

  • Ho Chi Minh fought this & appealed to US

  • US said no, and Ho turned to Soviets

  • Formed Vietminh (aka N. Vietnam)

  • Ho’s forces surrounded Fr. at Dienbienphu


Problems in indochina2
Problems in Indochina

  • French settle with Geneva Accords

  • Vietnam to be divided – 17th parallel

  • North to be governed by Ho Chi Minh

  • South to hold elections

  • Ike committed to help South due to domino theory

  • Dulles worked to get Ngo Dinh Diem as temporary leader w/ military support & $$


Problems in iran persia
Problems in Iran (Persia)

  • 1951 P.M. Mossadegh nationalized British oil wells

  • CIA helped military coup against P.M.

  • Mohammed RizaPahlava (Shah) became absolute ruler

  • Shah invited American oil companies into Iran


Egypt
Egypt

  • Abdel Nasser worked for final ind. from GB

  • Dulles ?? his motives

    • Soviet arms for cotton

    • Withdrew US $$ for Aswan Dam on Nile

  • Nasser seized British Suez Canal



Egypt1
Egypt

  • Israel attacked, followed by Fr. & GB

  • Soviets offer to help Nasser

  • US shocked & denounced operations

  • Cease fire negotiated, tensions created

    • Tightened reigns on Israel

    • Angered Fr. & GB

  • Soviets provided Nasser his dam $$$


Latin america
Latin America

  • Large number of Am. economic ventures

  • Corporations controlled many govts.

    • Many despotic & unpopular

    • Caused resentment as govt. figures got richer

    • Dollars didn’t trickle down

  • US abandoned FDR’s Good Neighbor Policy

  • Nixon learned of animosity first hand


Cold war 1950s
Cuba

  • 1952 Fulgencio Batista ruled

  • Military and American corp. took much

  • Popular front develops under Fidel Castro

  • Batista fled in 1958, Castro emerges 1959

  • US supported Castro until land reform

  • US retaliated

    • Cut sugar imports

    • Severed diplomatic ties

    • Secretly started to train expatriates for invasion


Soviet union
Soviet Union

  • Stalin died in 1953  months before end of Korean War

  • Nikita Khrushchev eventually took chargeof USSR



Soviet union1
Soviet Union

  • Arms race heated up

    • Sputnik – 1957(accounts)

      - ICBMs

    • US nuclear subs

    • Americans build bomb shelters & drilled


1950s fallout shelters
1950s “Fallout” Shelters

  • School drills ; “Duck & Cover”

  • 14 days of supplies


Interstate highway system
Interstate Highway System

  • Defense/Commerce

  • Passed in 1958


Flopnik stayputnik
Flopnik” & “Stayputnik”


Eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrine

  • Economic & military assistance to maintain “territorial independence” of Middle East

  • Not just anti-Soviet, opposed to pan-Arab unification

    • Egypt & Syria formed UAR 1958

    • Lebanon, Jordan & Iraq likely to join

  • Beirut gov’t requested assistance

    • Ike sent in 5,000 Marines

    • Quieted things down for a short time


Another berlin crisis
Another Berlin Crisis??

  • Soviets fear rise of W. Germany

    • NATO membership

    • Common Market membership

  • Khrushchev demands US ceded W. Berlin

  • Backs off in return for summit

  • Khrushchev came to USA 1959

  • Plans made for Ike to go to Moscow


Kitchen debates
Kitchen Debates

  • Nixon opened US Exhibit at Worlds Fair in Moscow

  • Took Khrushchev on tour of “average” American home

  • Khrushchev unloads on him but Nixon rebuts


U 2 incident ends progress
U-2 Incident Ends Progress

  • CIA operation

  • Scheme to prevent detection backfired

  • Francis Gary Powers captured

  • Ike caught in a lie

  • Relations return to “deep freeze”

  • Ike’s Moscow trip off



Ike s farewell
Ike’s Farewell

  • Warned of “military-industrial” complex


Debate topics
Debate Topics

  • Who caused the Cold War? Was the US acting as a defensive or aggressive nation?

  • Was the Cold War inevitable or avoidable?

  • Other issues??