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BRAZIL The Unknown Giant. Luiz Amaral. Geography. Territory: 8,514,215.3 km ² (3,287 357 mi ² ) Coastline: 7,367 km (4,578 mi) Population: 185,752,945 (03.04.2006) Cities: 5,560 States: 26 + Distrito Federal Regions: 5 (North, North-East, Center-West, South- East, South).

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slide1

BRAZIL

The Unknown Giant

Luiz Amaral

slide2

Geography

Territory: 8,514,215.3 km² (3,287 357 mi²)

Coastline: 7,367 km (4,578 mi)

Population: 185,752,945 (03.04.2006)

Cities: 5,560

States: 26 + Distrito Federal

Regions: 5 (North, North-East, Center-West, South- East, South)

slide3

Geography

  • Main cities with population in 2005:
    • São Paulo – SP (10,927,985)
    • Rio de Janeiro – RJ (6,094,183)
    • Salvador – BA (2,673,560)
    • Belo Horizonte – MG (2,375,329)
    • Fortaleza – CE (2,374,944)
    • Brasília – DF (2,333,108)
    • Curitiba – PR (1,757,904)
    • Manaus – AM (1,644,690)
    • Recife – PE (1,501,008)
    • Porto Alegre – RG (1,428,696)
slide4

North

  • 45.27% of the Brazilian territory.
  • 7 592 118 inhabitants.
  • It has the lowest demographic density of all the regions.
  • Enjoying an equatorial climate, it is washed by the great rivers of the Amazon and Tocantins basins.
  • The economy is based on vegetable extraction (e.g. latex, palm tree, timber and chestnut), on mineral extraction (e.g. gold, diamonds, cassiterite and tin) as well as large-scale mineral exploration (e.g. iron and manganese).
slide5

North-East

  • 18.26% of the Brazilian territory.
  • 45 924 812 inhabitants (28.9%).
  • The majority of its territory consists of vast and ancient plateau that has been smoothed by erosion (semi-arid climate).
  • The economy of the region is based chiefly on the agro-industry (sugar and cocoa).
  • Big tourist industry.
  • Oil exploration in Bahia state.
  • São Francisco is the region's largest river and the only source of all-year round water for those who live on its banks.
slide6

Center-West

  • 18.86% of the Brazilian territory.
  • 11 048 874 inhabitants (81.3% live in cities).
  • The climate of the region is semi-humid tropical, with frequent summer rain.
  • The economy was initially based on gold and diamond prospecting which was gradually replaced by cattle-breeding.
  • This region has been undergoing significant changes in relation to its vegetation with the cerrado (scrubland) being gradually replaced by plantations or cattle-rearing.
  • Visitors from all over the world come to see the rich fauna and flora of Pantanal.
slide7

South

  • 6.75% of the Brazilian territory.
  • 24 223 412 inhabitants (74.1% live in cities).
  • It has a sub-tropical climate, except in the northern region of the state of Paraná where a tropical climate predominates.
  • The region was colonized by German, Italian, and Azorean immigrants.
  • Initially based on cattle-rearing, the economy of the South has developed a significant industrial base over recent decades.
  • Agricultural production makes use of modern cultivation techniques (wheat, soy, rice, maize, beans and tobacco).
slide8

South-East

  • 10.85% of the Brazilian territory.
  • The region has the largest population:69 174 339 inhabitants (88% live in cities).
  • Its typical landscape consists of rounded mountain formations.
  • Its economy is the most developed and industrialized in the country.
  • Biggest oil basin in Brazil (state of Rio de Janeiro).
  • Car manufacturers (Volkswagen, Ford, Fiat, Mercedes, Chevrolet, Citroen, Toyota, Honda).
  • It is the most visited region in Brazil.
  • Main international airports (Guarulhos – SP, Galeão – RJ).
slide9

São Paulo

  • Over 34 000 000 inhabitants.
  • Responsible for 35% of Brazilian GDP.
  • Its GDP is bigger than the GDP of any other country in Latin America except Mexico.
  • Its GDP is twice the Argentinean GDP.
  • It has the best research institutions in Latin America (USP and UNICAMP).
  • The state houses many of the largest Brazilian and international companies and foreign banks with head-offices in the country.
  • It is also the headquarters of the eighth largest stock market in the world and the second largest future market.

http://www.latinbusinesschronicle.com/statistics/gdp/ranking.htm

slide10

History

  • Brazilian History is divided into three periods:
    • Colony (1500 – 1822)
    • Empire (1822 – 1889)
    • Republic (1889 – present)
  • Brazilian Capitals
    • Salvador (1549 – 1773)
    • Rio de Janeiro (1773 – 1960)
    • Brasília (1960 – present)
  • Political Organization
    • Hereditary captaincies (colony)
    • States (previous provinces) with more local power
    • States as part of a federative republic
slide12

Democracy and dictatorship in modern Brazilian History

  • 1889 – 1930: Constitutional Democracy.
  • 1930 – 1945: Military coup places Getúlio Vargas in power.
    • 1930 – 1937: Vargas interim presidency.
    • 1937 – 1945: Estado Novo (New State).
  • 1945 – 1964:Democratic period.
  • 1964 – 1985: Military Dictatorship.
  • 1985 – present: Modern Democracy.
juscelino kubitschek jk 1956 1961
Juscelino Kubitschek (JK)(1956 – 1961)
  • Fifty years in five.
  • Building of Brasília.
  • Era of great hope.
  • Influx of international investments.
  • The economy boomed, but at some cost.
  • Inflation and devaluation of the currency.
j nio quadros jan 31 aug 25 1961
Jânio Quadros(Jan 31 – Aug 25, 1961)
  • Elected with no congressional support.
  • Polemic figure (prohibited bikinis in Copacabana).
  • Right-wing president who established relations with Cuba and Russia.
  • Resigned in an attempt to gain political power.
  • His resignation created a political crisis.
jo o goulart jango 1961 1964
João Goulart (Jango)(1961 - 1964)
  • Left-wing vice president.
  • 1961 – 1963: Parliamentary system.
  • 1963 – 1964: Presidential system.
  • Nationalist reforms to face social problems.
  • Nationalization of companies.
  • Increase of organized social groups.
  • Nationalism vs Imperialism.
brazilian military presidents
Brazilian Military Presidents

Castelo Branco

(1964 – 1967)

Costa e Silva

(1967 – 1969)

João Baptista Figueiredo

(1979 - 1985)

Emílio Médici

(1969 – 1974)

Ernesto Geisel

(1974 - 1979)

the economy
1964 – 1967: Economic Recuperation

Programa de Ação Econômica do Governo (PAEG)

Reduced budget, deficit, salaries, inflation. GDP grew again.

1969 – 1973: The Brazilian Miracle

GDP grew 11% a year.

Growth was based on more debts and external dependency.

Salaries were very low, and social benefits were lost.

1973 – 1979: Economic Problems

Increase of internal and external debts.

1978 : Strikes in São Paulo.

1980’s: “The lost decade”

Inflation soared, the debt destroyed the Brazilian economy.

IMF imposed a painful austerity program on Brazil.

The Economy
redemocratization
1974: Gen. Geisel becomes president and promises democracy.

1979: Gen. Figueiredo becomes president and promises to finish Geisel’s work.

1979: General amnesty (including those who tortured civilians).

New political parties are allowed to exist.

1982: General elections for governors and state representatives.

1984 – Diretas Já! – Direct (vote) now! A civil movement for direct presidential elections.

Redemocratization
tancredo neves 1985
Tancredo Neves(1985)
  • Minister of Justice during Getúlio Varga’s government (1935).
  • Prime Minister of Jango (1961).
  • Jan 15, 1985: elected president by the congress.
  • Died in Mar 15, 1985.
  • Tancredo was the hope for a new country.
jos sarney 1985 1990
José Sarney(1985 - 1990)
  • Ex-member of the ARENA, vice-president of Tancredo.
  • His government faced several economic problems: huge foreign debt, and inflation.
  • Plano Cruzado (economic plan) did not work.
  • 1986: Elections for congress.
  • 1988: New constitution.
fernando collor de melo 1991 1992
Fernando Collor de Melo(1991-1992)
  • First president democratically elected since 1961.
  • He was a good looking candidate that promised to end corruption and to modernize the country.
  • Involved in many scandals, he was impeached in 1992.
  • Several rallies occurred throughout the country against him.
itamar franco 1992 1994
Itamar Franco(1992 - 1994)
  • Vice-president of Collor; formally took office in Dec 1992.
  • Inflation reached 6000% in 1993.
  • Franco managed to unite several political parties and create a successful economic plan (Plano Real) in 1994 that reduced inflation to a single digit.
  • His minister of Economy was elected president in 1994.
fernando henrique cardoso 1995 2002
Fernando Henrique Cardoso(1995 - 2002)
  • FHC consolidated the political and economic stability.
  • He privatized several companies (including CSN, and EMBRATEL).
  • After some years of economic growth, Brazil’s economy suffered the consequences of world economic crisis.
  • FHC was reelected in 1998.
luiz in cio lula da silva 2003 present
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva(2003 - present)
  • He had a very poor childhood. At age 12 he worked as a shoeshine boy and street vendor.
  • In 1978, he was elected president of the Steel Workers' Union of São Bernardo.
  • In 1980, he and a group of academics, union leaders and intellectuals founded the Labor Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores - PT).
  • During the 1990’s PT shifted from a left-wing party to more center-left position.
  • LULA was elected president in 2002.
  • Instead of deep social changes (as proposed in the past) his government chose a reformist line, passing new retirement, tributary, labor, and judicial laws, and discussing a university reform.
social issues in brazil
Social Issues in Brazil
  • The Brazilian economy had a belated flourishing, even for Latin American standards.
  • During the 19th century Brazil was poorer than Peru and growth was slow.
  • During the 20th century the South and South-East regions developed much faster. This created the migration problem.
  • In the 20th century an educational system had to be built.
  • The quality of public education is still questionable in some areas.
  • Before 1950 there were no good public hospitals, and very few public health campaigns.
racial issues in brazil
Racial Issues in Brazil
  • Brazil has a multi-racial society.
    • Mulatos
    • Caboclos
    • Cafuzos
  • Brazil was the last country in the Americas to end slavery (1888).
  • Social integration of African-Brazilians and other minorities (caboclos, cafuzos, etc) has been a slow process.
  • The first affirmative action policies were introduced in the last ten years.
  • Racial minorities still have less access to good school, and good health system.
  • Different developing rates among different geographic regions increased the problem.
improvements in social issues
Improvements in Social Issues
  • Infant mortality rates dropped from 41.1% in 1992 to 27.5% in 2003 (15.18% in Argentina; 5.7% in USA, but 14% among African Americans).
  • 97.3% of children (7 to 14) in school in 2003.
  • 99.5% of homes have access to electricity, 89.6% receive public clean water.
  • 17.5% have a computer at home, 13.2% have internet access (although Brazil represents 32% of internet access in Latin America).
  • “Fome Zero” (Zero Hunger) – A social program that distributes money to selected regions and cities whose inhabitants suffer severe difficulties.
  • “Bolsa Família” (Family Aid) – the program consists primarily of financial aid to families with incomes of less than US$40.00 per month. It demands that the families send their children to school and keep their vaccines up to date.
  • Aids program - Brazil's guarantee of access to free antiretroviral (ARV) drugs since 1996. The government promotes public campaigns to educate the population.
slide28

CURIOSITIES:

Orange Pipeline (Sucoduto)

  • 30% of the orange produced in the world (USA – 18%).
  • Brazil exports to Europe, USA, China, Japan, Russia, India (among others).
slide29

CURIOSITIES:

How do we vote?

  • 100% electronic voting.
  • We vote using electronic voting machines.
  • Each candidate has one number.
  • We enter the candidate’s number and see his/her picture and name on the screen.
  • Official results in less than 24 hours.
  • Elections in Brazil are considered the most well organized in the continent.

www.tse.gov.br/eleicoes/urna_eletronica/simulacao_votacao/UrnaApplet2.htm

slide30

CURIOSITIES:

EMBRAER

  • Embraer has become one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in the world by focusing on specific market segments with high growth potential in commercial, defense, and executive aviation.
  • Embraer was Brazil’s largest exporter from 1999 to 2001 and the second largest in 2002, 2003 and 2004. It currently employs more than 16,500 people, 85.5% based in Brazil.
slide31

CURIOSITIES:

BOSSA NOVA (The new beat)

  • Bossa nova is a style of Brazilian music invented in the late 1950s by a group of middle-class students and musicians living in the Copacabana and Ipanema beachside districts of Rio de Janeiro.
  • The music derives from samba but is more complex harmonically and less percussive.
  • Perhaps the best known bossa nova song is Antonio Carlos Jobim's “The Girl from Ipanema”.
  • Bossa Nova was popularized in the US by Stan Getz, João Gilberto, Tom Jobim, Frank Sinatra, and Vinicius de Moraes.
slide32

Web resources

  • http://www.mre.gov.br/cdbrasil/itamaraty/web/ingles/index.htm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Brazil
  • http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luiz_In%C3%A1cio_Lula_da_Silva
  • http://www.ibge.gov.br/(not everything is available in English)
  • http://ww2.aegis.com/news/ct/2003/CT030601.html
  • http://www.embraer.com.br/english/content/home/
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bossa_nova