Carpentry IBuilding Materials, Adhesives and Fasteners Chariho High School Career and Technical Center
KINDS OF WOOD • Softwood comes from needle leaf, evergreen trees called conifers • Hardwood comes from broadleaf trees that lose their leaves each fall season, called deciduous trees. Kinds of Woods
How Lumber is Sawn Quarter sawn has the growth rings of the tree approximately perpendicular to the board's surface. Quarter sawn wood has the straightest grain. The lumber is cut with growth rings at an angle greater the 45 degrees. Plain sawn (or flat-sawn) lumber has the growth rings of the tree parallel to the board's broad face. Plain sawn wood highlights the grain, loops and growth swirls of the wood.
Uses of Softwood Types • White pine – shelving, interior finish, exterior trim, and door frames • Yellow pine – benches, stairs, where semi-hard surface is desired • Fir – framing members, siding, sheathing, and gates • Redwood – posts, fences, patios, and siding • Cedar – fence posts, sills, and shingles • Spruce – aviation and musical instruments
Hardwood Identification BIRCH OAK WALNUT MAHAGONY MAPLE
Uses of Hardwood Types • Oak - used in floors, interior finish, barrels, furniture • Walnut – used for fine furniture, boat building, clock cases • Maple – used for floors, interior finish, furniture, and guitar necks • Mahogany – is used for fine furniture, boat interiors, pianos, • Birch – used for surface veneer on cabinets and doors, Furniture, high-grade joinery, high-grade plywood
DEFECT VS. BLEMISH • A Lumber defect is an irregularity in or on the wood that reduces its strength, durability, or usefulness • A Lumber blemish is a defect that impairs only the wood’s appearance
Common Lumber Defects • Knots • Holes • Splits • Shakes • Pitch pockets • Bow • Wane • Decay • Blue Stain • Warp / Twist • Crook
Common Lumber Defects Bow: A board that rocks from end to end when laid on one face. Crook: A board that rocks from end to end when laid on one edge. (crown and bow together)
Common Lumber Defects Cup: A board that rocks from edge to edge when laid on one face. Twist: A board that rests on opposite diagonal corners when laid on one face.
Checks Common Lumber Defects Checks and shakes: Checks are cracks across the growth rings. Shakes are cracks between the rings. Knots: These are remnants of branches.
Lumber Grading • S-Dry – 19% maximum moisture content • MC15 – 15% maximum moister content • S-GRN – over 19% moister content (unseasoned)
Material Rough lumber - 1x6 actually measures ”x6” • Thickness identified by quarters – 4/4, 5/4, 6/4, 8/4, etc… • Rough all 4 sides • Less money – from the mill • more time involved in preparation • Ability to plane various thicknesses • Sold by the board foot
Board Footage BF Board Feet = quantity X width (in inches) X thickness (in inches) X length (in feet) / 12 Examples on one board foot 12”x12”x1” , 2”x3”x24”
Dimensional Lumber • Lumber that is supplied in nominal 2”, 3”, or 4” thicknesses with standard widths. • Light framing, joists, studs, and planks are classified dimensional lumber
Dressed Lumber Dressed Lumber - actual size • dimensions of lumber after surfacing with a planer • Usually ½” to ¾” less than the nominal or rough size Examples - surfaced four sides S4S, surfaced one side S1S, surfaced one edge S1E, surfaced twos sides one edge S2SE1 • Increased cost- lumber yard/ home center • less time in prep 2 x 4 actually 1 ½ X 3 ½, 2 x 6 actually 1 ½ X 5 ½,
Basic Lumber Grades • Select – • Grades A & B suitable for natural finishes • Grades C & D are suitable for paint finishes • Common – • Common #1, 2, and 3 are suitable for use without waste • Common # 4 and 5 are suitable for use permitting waste
Factors to Consider when Selecting Lumber • Quality construction does not require that all the lumber be of the best grade • Several grades of lumber may be appropriate in a single structure • Good economical construction requires the proper use of the lowest grade lumber suitable for the purpose
Lumber Grade Marks To protect the buyer and consumer, the industry has developed a system requiring ink-stamped grade marking of each piece of lumber under adequate quality control measures. This assures delivery of the grade specified for its intended use. Lumber grading and marking is monitored and inspected by agencies accredited by the American Lumber Standard Committee (ALSC).
Pressure Treated Lumber Handling Precautions • Dispose of treated wood by ordinary trash collection or burial. Treated wood should not be burned in open fires or in stoves, fireplaces, or residential boilers because toxic chemicals may be produced as part of the smoke and ashes.
Pressure Treated Lumber • Avoid frequent or prolonged inhalation of sawdust from treated wood. When sawing and machining treated wood, wear a dust mask. Whenever possible, these operations should be performed outdoors to avoid indoor accumulations of airborne sawdust from treated wood. • When power-sawing and machining, wear goggles to protect eyes from flying particles.
Pressure Treated Lumber • Wear gloves when working with the wood. After working with the wood, and before eating, drinking, and toileting, wash exposed areas thoroughly. • Because preservatives and sawdust may accumulate on clothes, they should be laundered before reuse. Wash work clothes separately from other household clothing.
Plywood Grade Designations... Most sanded plywood grades are identified by the veneer grade used on the face and back of the panel. Veneer grades define veneer quality according to natural unrepaired growth characteristics and allowable number and size of repairs permitted during manufacture. Veneer grades in descending order of quality are A, B, C-Plugged, C and D. Exposure Durability... Sanded plywood is produced in three basic exposure classifications: Exterior, Exposure 1, and Interior. The exposure durability classification relates to glue bond, and thus to structural integrity.
Plywood Exterior ship-lap siding panel Interior Panels • Manufactured with exterior glue but are intended for interior applications only. Exterior Panels • Made with a water resistant bond and are designed for applications subject to permanent exposure to the weather or moisture. Exposure 1 Panels • Consists of a water-resistant bond and are designed for applications where long delays may be expected prior to providing protection, or where high moisture conditions may be encountered in service.
Plywood Butt joint • Is made from layers (plies) of wood veneer • The center is known as the core. • Average size is 4 X 8, some companies produce larger and smaller sheets. • Vary in thickness from 3/16” to 1 ¼” • Three types of edges on the plywood: • Butt joint • Shiplap • Tongue-and-groove Tongue-and-groove
Engineered Lumber • Laminated strand lumber (LSL) is engineered for consistent quality and uniformity. It is made with a network of hardwood strands laminated together with a waterproof adhesive to form a single, solid piece of material. • Defects found in solid lumber have been engineered out, so it resists bowing, twisting, shrinking and telegraphing. It is an excellent alternative to traditional stave lumber or solid sawn lumber cores.
OSB Oriented Strand Board Oriented strand board (OSB) Rated Sheathing is an engineered wood structural panel used in wall and roof sheathing applications.The product is made of compressed wood strands arranged in three perpendicular layers and bonded with phenolic resin. Panels contain no core voids, knots or splits. Multi-layered bonding provides exceptional dimensional stability and stiffness, and a remarkably smooth surface. These panels offer strength, racking and impact resistance, uniformity and excellent fastener retention. Thicknesses from 7/16" to 1-1/8" are available.
Hardboard Hardboard is used in a variety of applications including furniture components, wall paneling, exterior siding and trim (tempered), underlayment, interior trim and perforated boards. In addition to the familiar brown board, panels are available in many forms including sophisticated wood grains and embossed surfaces. A sheet metal screw is recommended for use with particleboard and hardboard.
HDO high density overlay HDO plywood is manufactured with a thermosetting resin-impregnated fiber surface bonded to both sides under heat and pressure. It's the more rugged of the overlaid panels and ideal for such punishing applications as concrete forming and high wear applications. HDO brings to the job all the proven advantages of plywood's large size, high strength, light weight, dimensional stability and rack resistance. The tough resin overlay withstands severe exposure without further finishing. It also resists abrasion, moisture penetration and deterioration from many common chemicals and solvents.
History of Nail Classification Nails are usually sold by weight (either in bulk or in boxes). In the US, the length of a nail is designated by its penny size . It is commonly believed that the origin of the term "penny" in relation to nail size is based on the old custom in England of selling nails by the hundred. A hundred nails that sold for six pence were "six penny" nails. The larger the nail, the more a hundred nails would cost. The penny size is written with a number and the abbreviation d for penny (e.g. - 10d). D is an abbreviation for denerius, a Roman coin similar to a penny;
Nails penny size length 2d 1 3d 1¼ 4d 1½ 6d 2 7d 2¼ 8d 2½ 9d 2¾ 10d 3 12d 3¼ 16 3½ 20d 4 30d 4½ 40d 5 50d 5½ 60d 6
Nails Terminology Box - a wire nail with a head; box nails have a smaller shank than common nails of the same size Bright - no surface coating; not recommended for weather exposure or acidic or treated lumber Casing - a wire nail with a slightly larger head than finish nails; often used for flooring Common - a common construction wire nail with a head: common nails have larger shanks than box nails of the same size Duplex - a common nail with a second head, allowing for easy extraction, commonly used for concrete form and scaffold members. Finish - a wire nail that does not have a "head"; can be easily concealed (with a nail set). Galvanized - treated for resistance to corrosion and/or weather exposure * Electrogalvanized - provides a smooth finish with some corrosion resistance * Mechanically galvanized - deposits more zinc than electrogalvanizing for increased corrosion resistance * Hot-dip galvanized - provides a rough finish that deposits more zinc than other methods, resulting in very high corrosion resistance that is suitable for some acidic and treated lumber; often easier to bend than other types of nails Helix - the nail has a square shank that has been twisted this makes the nail very difficult to pull out; often used in decking Ring Shank - small rings on the shank to prevent the nail from being worked back out often used in flooring Spike - a large nail (usually over 4") See nail board for actual nails.
Buck A framing opening (door or window) in concrete is called a buck.
Concrete masonry unit (CMU) Concrete masonry unit (CMU) — also called concrete block, cement block or foundation block — is a large rectangular brick used in construction. Concrete blocks are made from cast concrete, i.e. Portland cement and aggregate, usually sand and fine gravel for high-density blocks. Lower density blocks may use industrial wastes as an aggregate. Concrete blocks may be produced with hollow centers to reduce weight or improve insulation. Blocks come in many sizes. In the US, the most common size is 8 in × 8 in × 16 in; the actual size is usually about 3/8 in smaller to allow for mortar joints.